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The rapid accumulation of knowledge and the recent emergence of new dynamic and practically unmoderated information repositories have rendered the classical concept of the hierarchal knowledge structure irrelevant and impossible to impose manually. This led to modern methods of data location, such as browsing or searching, which conceal the underlying(More)
The dynamics of generalized Lotka-Volterra systems is studied by theoretical techniques and computer simulations. These systems describe the time evolution of the wealth distribution of individuals in a society, as well as of the market values of firms in the stock market. The individual wealths or market values are given by a set of time dependent(More)
Statistical distributions with heavy tails are ubiquitous in natural and social phenomena. Since the entries in heavy tail have unproportional significance, the knowledge of its exact shape is very important. Citations of scientific papers form one of the best-known heavy tail distributions. Even in this case there is a considerable debate whether citation(More)
The Generalized Lotka-Volterra (GLV) model: w i (t + 1) = w i (t) + a w(t) ? c w(t)w i (t) ; i = 1 provides a general method to simulate, analyze and understand a wide class of phenomena that are characterized by power-law probability distributions: P (w)dw w ?1? dw (1) and truncated Levy ights uctuations L (w).
This paper discusses some consequences of the discovery that antigen receptors are degenerate: Immune specificity, in contrast to the tenets of the clonal selection paradigm, must be generated by the immune response down-stream of initial antigen recognition; and specificity is a property of a collective of cells and not of single clones.
We tested human ability to recover the 3D structure and motion information from time-varying images where only 1D motion cues were available. Under these conditions, observers exhibit poor performance in discriminating between two perpendicular axes of rotation, or discriminating between rigid and non-rigid 3D motion. This behavior of the visual system is(More)
Recovering 3D information from a 2D time-varying image is a vital task which human observers face daily. Numerous models exist which compute global 3D structure and motion on the basis of 2D local motion measurements of point-like elements. On the other hand, both experimental and computational research of early visual motion mechanisms emphasize the role(More)
AIDS is the pandemic of our era. A disease that scares us not only because it is fatal but also because its insidious time course makes us all potential carriers long before it hands us our heads in a basket. The strange three stage dynamics of aids is also one of the major puzzles in describing the disease theoretically (1). Aids starts, like most(More)