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The role of the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease is still unclear. Using microrecordings, we investigated the changes occurring in PPN neurons after lesions of the substantia nigra compacta (SNc) and the role of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in these changes. In normal rats the firing rate of PPN neurons was 10.6(More)
During the last decade deep brain stimulation (DBS) has become a routine method for the treatment of advanced Parkinson’s disease (PD), leading to striking improvements in motor function and quality of life of PD patients. It is associated with minimal morbidity. The rationale of targeting specific structures within basal ganglia such as the subthalamic(More)
Microelectrode recordings of single unit neuronal activity were used during stereotactic surgery to define the subthalamic nucleus for chronic deep brain stimulation in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. By using five parallel trajectories, often two to three microelectrodes allow us to recognize subthalamic nucleus (STN) neuronal activity. STN neurons(More)
The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) and the subthalamic nucleus (STN) are reciprocally connected by excitatory projections. In the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rat model the PPN was found to be hyperactive. Similarly, the STN and the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) showed increased activity in Parkinson's disease (PD) animal models. A lesion of the STN(More)
Gait and balance disturbances typically emerge in advanced Parkinson's disease with generally limited response to dopaminergic medication and subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation. Therefore, advanced programming with interleaved pulses was put forward to introduce concomittant nigral stimulation on caudal contacts of a subthalamic lead. Here, we(More)
Recent data suggest a role for the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease. Although there is anatomical evidence that the PPN and the basal ganglia are reciprocally connected, the functional importance of these connections is poorly understood. Lesioning of the PPN was shown to induce akinesia in primates, whereas in(More)
The functional significance of the interhemispheric projections on the basal ganglia level is poorly understood. Insofar as the anatomical evidence for crossing projections between basal ganglia nuclei is sparse, whereas tracing studies demonstrated important crossing projections from the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) to the basal ganglia, it is suggested(More)
OBJECTIVE The optimal imaging modality for preoperative targeting of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) for high-frequency stimulation is controversially discussed. Commonly used methods were stereotactic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), stereotactic ventriculography, and fusion between MRI and stereotactic computer tomography. All of these techniques not only(More)
The origin of changes in the neuronal activity of the globus pallidus (GP) and the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD) is still controversial. The aim of the study was to investigate the neuronal activity of STN and GP neurons under urethane anesthesia in an early and in an advanced stage PD rat model. 6-Hydroxydopamine(More)
Severe gait disturbances in idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD) are observed in up to 80% of all patients in advanced disease stages [1, 2] with an important impact on quality of life [3–5]. While segmental symptoms generally respond well to dopaminergic medication and high-frequent deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS), treatment of(More)