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Footshock stress can reinstate cocaine-seeking behavior through a central action of the stress-associated neurohormone corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF). Here we report (1) that footshock stress releases CRF in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of the rat brain, (2) that, in cocaine-experienced but not in cocaine-naive rats, this CRF acquires control over(More)
Initiation of cocaine self-administration in rats was associated with release of glutamate in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). The glutamate release was transient, despite continued cocaine intake. Similar glutamate release was seen in rats earning, for the first time, unexpected saline rather than expected cocaine. VTA glutamate release was not seen in(More)
We determined if heme oxygenase-2 (HO-2), an enzyme that degrades the pro-oxidant heme, confers neuroprotection in the developing brain after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Male HO-2 wild-type (WT) and homozygous knockout (KO) mice at postnatal day 21 were subjected to TBI and euthanized 1, 7, and 14 days later. Relative cerebral blood flow, measured by(More)
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