Sopio Chochua

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Streptococcus pneumoniae globally kills more children than any other infectious disease every year. A prerequisite for pneumococcal disease and transmission is colonization of the nasopharynx. While the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines has reduced the burden of pneumococcal disease, understanding the impact of vaccination on nasopharyngeal(More)
The effect of second-generation pneumococcal conjugate vaccines on invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) strain distributions have not yet been well described. We analysed IPD isolates recovered from children aged <5 years through Active Bacterial Core surveillance before (2008-2009; n = 828) and after (2011-2013; n = 600) 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate(More)
BACKGROUND Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) have decreased nasopharyngeal carriage of vaccine types but little data exist from rural areas. We investigated bacterial density, serotype distribution and antibiotic resistance of pneumococcal strains within the nasopharynx of young children in the Peruvian Andes, 2 years after PCV7 was introduced. (More)
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) forms organized biofilms to persist in the human nasopharynx. This persistence allows the pneumococcus to produce severe diseases such as pneumonia, otitis media, bacteremia and meningitis that kill nearly a million children every year. While bacteremia and meningitis are mediated by planktonic pneumococci, biofilm(More)
BACKGROUND A clinical trial of mass azithromycin distributions for trachoma created a convenient experiment to test the hypothesis that antibiotic use selects for clonal expansion of preexisting resistant bacterial strains. METHODS Twelve communities in Ethiopia received mass azithromycin distributions every 3 months for 1 year. A random sample of 10(More)
UNLABELLED β-Lactam antibiotics are the drugs of choice to treat pneumococcal infections. The spread of β-lactam-resistant pneumococci is a major concern in choosing an effective therapy for patients. Systematically tracking β-lactam resistance could benefit disease surveillance. Here we developed a classification system in which a pneumococcal isolate is(More)
Antimicrobial-resistant pneumococcal strains have been detected worldwide since the 1960s. In Brazil, the first penicillin-nonsusceptible pneumococci (PNSP) were reported in the 1980s, and their emergence and dissemination have been mainly attributed to serogroup 9 and serotype 14 strains, especially those highly related to recognized international clones.(More)
Three invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae strains nonsusceptible to linezolid were isolated in the United States between 2001 and 2012 from the CDC's Active Bacterial Core surveillance. Linezolid binds ribosomal proteins where structural changes within its target site may confer resistance. Our study identified mutations and deletions near the linezolid(More)
Pneumococcal macrolide resistance is usually expressed as one of two phenotypes: the M phenotype conferred by the mef gene or the MLSB phenotype caused by modification of ribosomal targets, most commonly mediated by an erm methylase. Target-site modification leading to antibiotic resistance can also occur due to sequence mutations within the 23S rRNA or the(More)