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Cleavage of huntingtin (htt) has been characterized in vitro, and accumulation of caspase cleavage fragments represents an early pathological change in brains of Huntington's disease (HD) patients. However, the relationship between htt proteolysis and the pathogenesis of HD is unknown. To determine whether caspase cleavage of htt is a key event in the(More)
Huntington's disease (HD) results from polyglutamine expansion in huntingtin (htt), a protein with several consensus caspase cleavage sites. Despite the identification of htt fragments in the brain, it has not been shown conclusively that htt is cleaved by caspases in vivo. Furthermore, no study has addressed when htt cleavage occurs with respect to the(More)
Caspases mediate essential key proteolytic events in inflammatory cascades and the apoptotic cell death pathway. Human caspases functionally segregate into two distinct subfamilies: those involved in cytokine maturation (caspase-1, -4 and -5) and those involved in cellular apoptosis (caspase-2, -3, -6, -7, -8, -9 and -10). Although caspase-12 is(More)
1 same time, neurons undergoing apoptosis generate ele-exacerbation of a vicious cycle which culminates in the and Molecular Biology progressive neuronal loss that is the hallmark of Alzhei-Neurosciences Research Centre mer's disease. For this hypothesis to be true, compo-Merck Sharp and Dohme Research Laboratories nents of the apoptotic machinery must(More)
In Huntington disease, polyglutamine expansion of the protein huntingtin (Htt) leads to selective neurodegenerative loss of medium spiny neurons throughout the striatum by an unknown apoptotic mechanism. Binding of Hip-1, a protein normally associated with Htt, is reduced by polyglutamine expansion. Free Hip-1 binds to a hitherto unknown polypeptide, Hippi(More)
Caspase-3-mediated proteolysis is a critical element of the apoptotic process. Recent studies have demonstrated a central role for mitochondrial proteins (e.g., Bcl-2 and cytochrome c) in the activation of caspase-3, by a process that involves interaction of several protein molecules. Using antibodies that specifically recognize the precursor form of(More)
MEK is a dual-specificity kinase that activates the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase upon agonist binding to receptors. The ERK/MAP kinase cascade is involved in cell fate determination in many organisms. In mammals, this pathway is proposed to regulate cell growth and differentiation. Genetic studies have(More)
The exquisite sensitivity of the cochlea, which mediates the transduction of sound waves into nerve impulses, depends on the endolymph ionic composition and the endocochlear potential. A key protein in the maintenance of the electrochemical composition of the endolymph is the Na,K-ATPase. In this study, we have looked for the presence in the rat inner ear(More)
Proteolytic enzymes produced by Porphyromonas gingivalis are thought to play critical roles in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of gingipain cysteine proteinase gene inactivation on selected pathological and physiological functions of P. gingivalis. Our results showed that Arg- and Lys-gingipain(More)
Six of 7 FXYD proteins have been shown to be tissue-specific modulators of Na,K-ATPase. In this study, we have identified two splice variants of human FXYD3, or Mat-8, in CaCo-2 cells. Short human FXYD3 has 72% sequence identity with mouse FXYD3, whereas long human FXYD3 is identical to short human FXYD3 but has a 26-amino acid insertion after the(More)