Learn More
Cleavage of huntingtin (htt) has been characterized in vitro, and accumulation of caspase cleavage fragments represents an early pathological change in brains of Huntington's disease (HD) patients. However, the relationship between htt proteolysis and the pathogenesis of HD is unknown. To determine whether caspase cleavage of htt is a key event in the(More)
Huntington's disease (HD) results from polyglutamine expansion in huntingtin (htt), a protein with several consensus caspase cleavage sites. Despite the identification of htt fragments in the brain, it has not been shown conclusively that htt is cleaved by caspases in vivo. Furthermore, no study has addressed when htt cleavage occurs with respect to the(More)
1 same time, neurons undergoing apoptosis generate ele-exacerbation of a vicious cycle which culminates in the and Molecular Biology progressive neuronal loss that is the hallmark of Alzhei-Neurosciences Research Centre mer's disease. For this hypothesis to be true, compo-Merck Sharp and Dohme Research Laboratories nents of the apoptotic machinery must(More)
Caspases mediate essential key proteolytic events in inflammatory cascades and the apoptotic cell death pathway. Human caspases functionally segregate into two distinct subfamilies: those involved in cytokine maturation (caspase-1, -4 and -5) and those involved in cellular apoptosis (caspase-2, -3, -6, -7, -8, -9 and -10). Although caspase-12 is(More)
In Huntington disease, polyglutamine expansion of the protein huntingtin (Htt) leads to selective neurodegenerative loss of medium spiny neurons throughout the striatum by an unknown apoptotic mechanism. Binding of Hip-1, a protein normally associated with Htt, is reduced by polyglutamine expansion. Free Hip-1 binds to a hitherto unknown polypeptide, Hippi(More)
Caspase-3-mediated proteolysis is a critical element of the apoptotic process. Recent studies have demonstrated a central role for mitochondrial proteins (e.g., Bcl-2 and cytochrome c) in the activation of caspase-3, by a process that involves interaction of several protein molecules. Using antibodies that specifically recognize the precursor form of(More)
Caspases are an extended family of cysteine proteases that play critical roles in apoptosis. Animals deficient in caspases-2 or -3, which share very similar tetrapeptide cleavage specificities, exhibit very different phenotypes, suggesting that the unique features of individual caspases may account for distinct regulation and specialized functions. Recent(More)
Hypoxia-ischemia (H-I) in the developing brain results in brain injury with prominent features of both apoptosis and necrosis. A peptide-based pan-caspase inhibitor is neuroprotective against neonatal H-I brain injury, suggesting a central role of caspases in brain injury. Because previously studied peptide-based caspase inhibitors are not potent and are(More)
Apoptosis is an evolutionarily conserved cell suicide process executed by cysteine proteases (caspases) and regulated by the opposing factions of the Bcl-2 protein family. Mammalian caspase-9 and its activator Apaf-1 were thought to be essential, because mice lacking either of them display neuronal hyperplasia and their lymphocytes and fibroblasts seem(More)
Parkinson's disease is characterized by a loss of dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons. This neuronal loss is mimicked by the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+). MPP+ toxicity is mediated through inhibition of mitochondrial complex I, decreasing ATP production, and upregulation of oxygen radicals. There is evidence that the cell death induced by(More)