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Cleavage of huntingtin (htt) has been characterized in vitro, and accumulation of caspase cleavage fragments represents an early pathological change in brains of Huntington's disease (HD) patients. However, the relationship between htt proteolysis and the pathogenesis of HD is unknown. To determine whether caspase cleavage of htt is a key event in the(More)
The amyloid-beta precursor protein (APP) is directly and efficiently cleaved by caspases during apoptosis, resulting in elevated amyloid-beta (A beta) peptide formation. The predominant site of caspase-mediated proteolysis is within the cytoplasmic tail of APP, and cleavage at this site occurs in hippocampal neurons in vivo following acute excitotoxic or(More)
1 same time, neurons undergoing apoptosis generate ele-exacerbation of a vicious cycle which culminates in the and Molecular Biology progressive neuronal loss that is the hallmark of Alzhei-Neurosciences Research Centre mer's disease. For this hypothesis to be true, compo-Merck Sharp and Dohme Research Laboratories nents of the apoptotic machinery must(More)
Huntington's disease (HD) results from polyglutamine expansion in huntingtin (htt), a protein with several consensus caspase cleavage sites. Despite the identification of htt fragments in the brain, it has not been shown conclusively that htt is cleaved by caspases in vivo. Furthermore, no study has addressed when htt cleavage occurs with respect to the(More)
Huntington's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by CAG expansion that results in expansion of a polyglutamine tract at the extreme N terminus of huntingtin (htt). htt with polyglutamine expansion is proapoptotic in different cell types. Here, we show that caspase inhibitors diminish the toxicity of htt. Additionally, we define htt itself as an(More)
Caspases mediate essential key proteolytic events in inflammatory cascades and the apoptotic cell death pathway. Human caspases functionally segregate into two distinct subfamilies: those involved in cytokine maturation (caspase-1, -4 and -5) and those involved in cellular apoptosis (caspase-2, -3, -6, -7, -8, -9 and -10). Although caspase-12 is(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder of the basal ganglia, associated with the inappropriate death of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). Here, we show that adenovirally mediated expression of neuronal apoptosis inhibitor protein (NAIP) ameliorates the loss of nigrostriatal function following(More)
The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein, pRb, is a key regulator of cell cycle and has been implicated in the terminal differentiation of neuronal cells. Mice nullizygous for pRb die by embryonic day 14.5 from hematopoietic and neurological defects attributed to failed differentiation (Clarke et al., 1992; Jacks et al., 1992; Lee et al., 1992). Previous(More)
Caspases are an extended family of cysteine proteases that play critical roles in apoptosis. Animals deficient in caspases-2 or -3, which share very similar tetrapeptide cleavage specificities, exhibit very different phenotypes, suggesting that the unique features of individual caspases may account for distinct regulation and specialized functions. Recent(More)
In Huntington disease, polyglutamine expansion of the protein huntingtin (Htt) leads to selective neurodegenerative loss of medium spiny neurons throughout the striatum by an unknown apoptotic mechanism. Binding of Hip-1, a protein normally associated with Htt, is reduced by polyglutamine expansion. Free Hip-1 binds to a hitherto unknown polypeptide, Hippi(More)