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The failure of regulatory science to keep pace with and support the development of new biological medicines was very publically highlighted in March 2006 when the first-in-man Phase I clinical trial of the immunomodulatory CD28-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) TGN1412 ended in disaster when all six volunteers suffered a life-threatening adverse reaction(More)
Cytokines are a diverse group of proteins and glycoproteins which have potent and wide-ranging effects on eukaryotic cell function and are now recognized as important mediators of tissue pathology in infectious diseases. It is increasingly recognized that for many bacterial species, cytokine induction is a major virulence mechanism. Until recent years, the(More)
BACKGROUND Linear growth retardation is a frequent complication of inflammatory bowel disease in children. The precise mechanisms causing growth failure are not known. AIMS To determine the relative contribution of reduced calorie intake and inflammation to linear growth delay and to determine the effect of inflammation on the(More)
Forty-two patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were resected and their tumours were analysed for p53 mutations by GC-clamped denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and gene sequencing. All the exons have been analysed in this study. Eight of 12 HCCs with cirrhosis due to viral hepatitis and the(More)
Human melanoma cell lines that express high constitutive levels of the metastasis-associated marker intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) were found to secrete interleukin 1 (IL-1) in vitro. Experiments with neutralizing antibodies showed that this cytokine was responsible for their expression of ICAM-1 but not that of two other progression/metastasis(More)
Periodontal disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are inflammatory conditions affecting the global adult population. In the pathogenesis of PD, subgingival complex bacterial biofilm induces inflammation that leads to connective tissue degradation and alveolar bone resorption around the teeth. In health, junctional epithelium seals the gingiva to the(More)
This study explored the origin of age-related granules in the apolipoprotein E gene knockout (ApoE-/-) B6 background mice brains following chronic gingival infection with Porphyromonas gingivalis for 24 weeks. Intracerebral localization of P. gingivalis was detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and its protease by immunohistochemistry. The(More)
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