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Microglia mediate multiple facets of neuroinflammation, including cytotoxicity, repair, regeneration, and immunosuppression due to their ability to acquire diverse activation states, or phenotypes. Modulation of microglial phenotype is an appealing neurotherapeutic strategy but a comprehensive study of classical and more novel microglial phenotypic markers(More)
Respiratory chain complex I deficiency represents a genetically heterogeneous group of diseases resulting from mutations in mitochondrial or nuclear genes. Mutations have been reported in 13 of the 14 subunits encoding the core of complex I (seven mitochondrial and six nuclear genes) and these result in Leigh or Leigh-like syndromes or cardiomyopathy. In(More)
Leigh syndrome is a subacute necrotising encephalomyopathy frequently ascribed to mitochondrial respiratory chain deficiency. This condition is genetically heterogeneous, as mutations in both mitochondrial (mt) and nuclear genes have been reported. Here, we report the G13513A transition in the ND5 mtDNA gene in three unrelated children with complex I(More)
PURPOSE After the first positive experimental data in rodents in the early 1970s demonstrating the anticonvulsant effect of stiripentol (STP), in vitro studies showed that STP acts directly on γ-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA ) receptors. Chloride influx is higher when these receptors contain an α3 subunit, leading to the hypothesis that STP might exhibit(More)
OBJECTIVE Perinatal brain injury is a major cause of neurodevelopmental handicaps. Multiple pathways of oxidant stress, inflammation, and excitotoxicity lead to cell damage and death, including caspase-dependent apoptosis. Caspase-2 (Casp2; Nedd-2, Ich-1) is a developmentally regulated initiator caspase, which poorly cleaves other caspases but can initiate(More)
The cognitive and behavioral deficits caused by traumatic brain injury (TBI) to the immature brain are more severe and persistent than injuries to the adult brain. Understanding this developmental sensitivity is critical because children under 4 years of age of sustain TBI more frequently than any other age group. One of the first events after TBI is the(More)
Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by ataxia, variously associating heart disease, diabetes mellitus and/or glucose intolerance. It results from intronic expansion of GAA triplet repeats at the FXN locus. Homozygous expansions cause silencing of the FXN gene and subsequent decreased expression of the encoded(More)
BACKGROUND Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a prominent role in neuroprotection against perinatal brain injury. Dexmedetomidine, a selective agonist of α2-adrenergic receptors, also provides neuroprotection against glutamate-induced damage. Because adrenergic receptor agonists can modulate BDNF expression, our goal was to examine whether(More)
Starting from a cohort of 50 NADH-oxidoreductase (complex I) deficient patients, we carried out the systematic sequence analysis of all mitochondrially encoded complex I subunits (ND1 to ND6 and ND4L) in affected tissues. This approach yielded the unexpectedly high rate of 20% mutation identification in our series. Recurrent heteroplasmic mutations included(More)
White-matter damage is a leading cause of neurological handicap. Although hypoxia-ischemia and excitotoxicity are major pathogenic factors, a role for genetic influences was suggested recently. Thus, protracted gestational hypoxia was associated with white-matter damage (WMD) in rat pups but not in mouse pups. Indeed, microglial activation and vessel-wall(More)