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1. A reversal in the sign of a cutaneous reflex during walking was recently described in the human. Such reversals were most clearly seen in muscles that were active in two parts of the step cycle, such as the tibialis anterior (TA). The current study determined whether the reversal resulted from differential activation of a single group of motor units. 2.(More)
The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of load mechanical characteristics and agonist-antagonist muscle cocontraction, on the stretch reflex response of wrist flexor muscles, and to measure the associated wrist stiffness. Subjects were required to maintain a constant wrist angle while operating against flexor loads with different stability(More)
The grip force holding an object between fingers usually increases before or simultaneously with arm movement thus preventing the object from sliding. We experimentally analyzed and simulated this anticipatory behavior based on the following notions. (1) To move the arm to a new position, the nervous system shifts the threshold position at which arm muscles(More)
1. The triceps surae (TS) stretch reflex was measured in decerebrate cats during crossed extensor stimulation and after spinalization during rhythmic locomotor activity induced by clonidine and manual perineal stimulation. The TS force in response to sinusoidal stretch was measured at a given contraction level before and after deafferentation, and the(More)
The triceps surae (TS) stretch reflex was measured in decerebrate cats during crossed extensor stimulation (tonic contractions) and after spinalization during rhythmic locomotor activity. The TS reflex force in response to a short pulse stretch measured during tonic contractions at low level of background activity was greater than when more background(More)
Because some of the decline in strength with age may be explained by an impairment of muscle activation, the purpose of this study was to determine the activation level achieved in biceps brachii by older adults during a maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). This capability was assessed with two superimposition techniques: one calculated the activation level(More)
During locomotion in decerebrate and spinal cats the group Ia afferents from hind leg muscles are depolarized rhythmically. An earlier study concluded that this locomotor-related primary afferent depolarization (PAD) does not contribute to modulation of monosynaptic reflex pathways during locomotion. This finding indicated that the neural network generating(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine, in ten healthy subjects, the extent of soleus motoneuronal excitability during conditions of increased (transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation [TENS]), decreased (Xylocaine [lidocaine]a anaesthesia) and normal (placebo anaesthesia) cutaneous inputs. Increased cutaneous activity was evoked using a TENS unit,(More)
Human walking involves coordinated movements of all four limbs. The benefits of incorporating arm movements in gait rehabilitation are not known and difficult to investigate in patient populations with poor balance and reduced walking capacity. This study assessed the effect of supported (SUP) versus unsupported (UNSUP) arm movements on the coordination(More)
The aim of this study was to determine if the antagonist activity of the triceps brachii (TB) and anconeus (AN) muscles is modulated when the activity of the biceps brachii (BB) and brachioradialis (BR) is modulated by the performance of combined tasks and to verify if this behavior is similar at different elbow angles. Electromyographic (EMG) activity of(More)