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It has been well established that expression of conditioned fear is context independent, but the context dependency of unconditioned fear expression has rarely been explored. A recent study reported that unconditioned freezing in rats is enhanced in a familiar context, which suggests that unconditioned fear expression can be modulated by contextual(More)
RATIONALE Many studies have reported the long-term adverse effects of alcohol on executive cognitive function in chronic alcohol abusers, yet little research has investigated the acute effects of alcohol in social drinkers. Studies on acute effects report alcohol-induced deficits on tasks that require executive cognitive processes, with alcohol acting to(More)
Clinical research has linked post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with deficits in fear extinction. However, it is not clear whether these deficits result from stress-related changes in the acquisition or retention of extinction or in the regulation of extinction memories by context, for example. In this study, we used the single prolonged stress (SPS)(More)
BACKGROUND There is considerable anecdotal and some scientific evidence that stress triggers eating behavior, but underlying physiological mechanisms remain uncertain. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a key mediator of physiological stress responses and may play a role in the link between stress and food intake. Cortisol responses to(More)
Changes in glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of stress related psychiatric disorders such as depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Abnormal adaptation of the stress-response system following traumatic stress can lead to an altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis that may contribute to PTSD(More)
Application of single prolonged stress (SPS) in rats induces changes in neuroendocrine function and arousal that are characteristic of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD, in humans, is associated with decreased neural activity in the prefrontal cortex, increased neural activity in the amygdala complex, and reduced neuronal integrity in the(More)
Data from preclinical and clinical studies have implicated the norepinephrine system in the development and maintenance of post-traumatic stress disorder. The primary source of norepinephrine in the forebrain is the locus coeruleus (LC); however, LC activity cannot be directly measured in humans, and previous research has often relied upon peripheral(More)
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a chronic, debilitating disorder. Only two pharmacological agents are approved for PTSD treatment, and they often do not address the full range of symptoms nor are they equally effective in all cases. Animal models of PTSD are critical for understanding the neurobiology involved and for identification of novel(More)
Ecstasy/MDMA use has been associated with various memory deficits. This study assessed declarative and procedural memory in ecstasy/MDMA users. Participants were tested in two sessions, 24 h apart, so that the memory consolidation function of sleep on both types of memory could also be assessed. Groups were: drug-naive controls (n = 24); recent ecstasy/MDMA(More)
Exposure to stressful or traumatic events is associated with increased vulnerability to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This vulnerability may be partly mediated by effects of stress on the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and associated circuitry. The PFC mediates critical cognitive functions, including cognitive flexibility, which reflects an organism's(More)