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In order to understand the sensitivity of alveolar macrophages (AMs) to substrate properties, we have developed a new model of macrophages cultured on substrates of increasing Young's modulus: (i) a monolayer of alveolar epithelial cells representing the supple (approximately 0.1 kPa) physiological substrate, (ii) polyacrylamide gels with two concentrations(More)
Growth and guidance of developing or regenerating axons require sensing of environmental cues (EC) by the growth cone. To explore the role of a spatially defined distribution of ligands on guidance, extension, and branching, we used a microcontact-printing technique allowing to deposit ligands as discrete spots of a size smaller than a cell body.(More)
We compare and synthesize the results of two microrheological experiments on the cytoskeleton of single cells. In the first one, the creep function J(t) of a cell stretched between two glass plates is measured after applying a constant force step. In the second one, a microbead specifically bound to transmembrane receptors is driven by an oscillating(More)
We attempted to estimate in living adherent epithelial alveolar cells, the degree of structural and mechanical heterogeneity by considering two individualized cytoskeleton components, i.e., a submembranous “cortical” cytoskeleton and a “deep” cytoskeleton (CSK). F-actin structure characterizing each CSK component was visualized from spatial reconstructions(More)
An original homogenization method was used to analyze the nonlinear elastic properties of epithelial cells probed by magnetic twisting cytometry. In this approach, the apparent rigidity of a cell with nonlinear mechanical properties is deduced from the mechanical response of the entire population of adherent cells. The proposed hyperelastic cell model(More)
This study aims at improving the understanding of mechanisms responsible for cell sensitivity to extracellular environment. We explain how substrate mechanical properties can modulate the force regulation of cell sensitive elements primarily adhesion sites. We present a theoretical and experimental comparison between two radically different approaches of(More)
Within the nervous system, expression of the intriguing giant protein AHNAK had been reported so far only for blood-brain barrier forming vascular endothelium. In a screen for genes upregulated after spinal cord injury, we recently identified ahnak as being highly expressed by non-neuronal cells invading the lesion, delimiting the interior surface of cystic(More)
Epithelia play a key role as protective barriers, and mechanisms of repair are crucial for restoring epithelial barrier integrity, especially in the lung. Cell spreading and migration are the first steps of reepithelialization. Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) plays a key role in lung epithelial repair and protects against various injuries. We hypothesized(More)
Using Magnetic Twisting Cytometry (MTC) technique, we attempted to characterize in vitro the rigidity of the lining tissue covering the lung alveolar wall from its apical face. We purposely used a cellular model constituted by a monolayer of human alveolar epithelial cell (A549) over which microbeads, fixed to InterCellular Adhesion Molecule (ICAM-1), exert(More)
We present a study of in vitro cell migration in two dimensions as a first step towards understanding the mechanisms governing the motility of glioma cells. Our study is based on a cellular automaton model which aims at reproducing the kinetics of a lump of glioma cells deposited on a substrate of collagen. The dynamical effects of cell attraction and(More)