Sophie E. Moore

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BACKGROUND Arsenic (As) exposure during pregnancy induces oxidative stress and increases the risk of fetal loss and low birth weight. OBJECTIVES In this study we aimed to elucidate the effects of As exposure on immune markers in the placenta and cord blood, and the involvement of oxidative stress. METHODS Pregnant women were enrolled around gestational(More)
Chronic exposure to arsenic, a potent carcinogen and toxicant, via drinking water is a worldwide public health problem. Because little is known about early-life effects of arsenic on immunity, we evaluated the impact of in utero exposure on infant immune parameters and morbidity in a pilot study. Pregnant women were enrolled at 6-10 weeks of gestation in(More)
Aflatoxins are immunotoxins that frequently contaminate staple foods in The Gambia and other parts of sub-Saharan Africa, resulting in high exposure throughout life. Impaired infant immune system development may be a key predictor of mortality from infectious disease. In this study we aimed to determine the effect of dietary aflatoxin exposure on a number(More)
In experimental animals, maternal diet during the periconceptional period influences the establishment of DNA methylation at metastable epialleles in the offspring, with permanent phenotypic consequences. Pronounced naturally occurring seasonal differences in the diet of rural Gambian women allowed us to test this in humans. We show that significant(More)
BACKGROUND Research over the past decade has suggested that prenatal and early postnatal nutrition influence the risk of developing chronic degenerative diseases up to 60 years later. We now present evidence that risk of death from infectious diseases in young adulthood is similarly programmed by early life events. METHODS In three rural Gambian villages,(More)
BACKGROUND We previously showed that mortality from infectious diseases among young adults in rural Gambia is strongly correlated with the season of their birth. This suggests that early life insults that involve fetal malnutrition, exposure to natural toxins, or highly seasonal infections affecting the infant or pregnant mother cause permanent damage to(More)
BACKGROUND Animal models show that periconceptional supplementation with folic acid, vitamin B-12, choline, and betaine can induce differences in offspring phenotype mediated by epigenetic changes in DNA. In humans, altered DNA methylation patterns have been observed in offspring whose mothers were exposed to famine or who conceived in the Gambian rainy(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic arsenic exposure causes a wide range of health effects, but little is known about critical windows of exposure. Arsenic readily crosses the placenta, but the few available data on postnatal exposure to arsenic via breast milk are not conclusive. AIM Our goal was to assess the arsenic exposure through breast milk in Bangladeshi infants,(More)
BACKGROUND The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding until age 6 mo. Studies relying on mothers' self-reported behaviors have shown that lactation counseling increases both the rate and duration of exclusive breastfeeding. OBJECTIVE We aimed to validate reported infant feeding practices in rural Bangladesh; intakes of breast milk(More)