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Carotenoid-based sexual traits are thought to be reliable indicators of male quality because they might be scarce and therefore might indicate the ability of males to gather high-quality food and because they are involved in important physiological functions (as immune enhancers and antioxidants). We performed an experiment where male and female zebra(More)
Secondary sexual traits (SST) are usually thought to have evolved as honest signals of individual quality during mate choice. Honesty of SST is guaranteed by the cost of producing/maintaining them. In males, the expression of many SST is testosterone-dependent. The immunocompetence handicap hypothesis has been proposed as a possible mechanism ensuring(More)
Optimal investment into life-history traits depends on the environmental conditions that organisms are likely to experience during their life. Evolutionary theory tells us that optimal investment in reproduction versus maintenance is likely to shape the pattern of age-associated decline in performance, also known as aging. The currency that is traded(More)
The allocation of resources to reproduction and survival is a central question of studies of life history evolution. Usually, increased allocation to current reproduction is paid in terms of reduced future reproduction and/or decreased survival. However, the proximal mechanisms underlying the cost of reproduction are poorly understood. Recently, it has been(More)
Carotenoid-based signals are thought to be indicators of male quality because they must be obtained from the diet and might thus indicate the ability of individuals to gather high-quality food. However, carotenoids are also known to have important physiological functions as immunoenhancers and antioxidants, and, as such, carotenoid-based sexual traits have(More)
We analyzed the movement of fishing vessels during fishing trips in order to understand how fishermen behave in space while searching for fish. For that purpose we used hourly geo-referenced positions of vessels, provided by a satellite vessel monitoring system, for the entire industrial fleet (809 vessels) of the world's largest single species fishery(More)
Fifty-nine monophasic Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates, collected in Belgium during the period from 2008 to 2011, have been serotyped as 4,[5]:i:- and shown to harbor an fljB coding sequence. The genetic differences between these strains and phenotypically biphasic Salmonella Typhimurium were analyzed through PCR and DNA sequencing. Genetic(More)
Salmonella infections are caused by consumption of contaminated food, person-to-person transmission, waterborne transmission and numerous environmental and animal exposures. Specifically, reptiles and other cold blooded animals (often referred to as "exotic pets") can act as reservoirs of Salmonella, and cases of infection have been associated with direct(More)
For more than 80 years, subtyping of Salmonella enterica has been routinely performed by serotyping, a method in which surface antigens are identified based on agglutination reactions with specific antibodies. The serotyping scheme, which is continuously updated as new serovars are discovered, has generated over time a data set of the utmost significance,(More)
To the Editor: Ciprofloxacin is the treatment of choice of severe non-typhoidal Salmonella infections in adults. Resistance to ciprofloxacin has been found exceptionally in nonty-phoidal Salmonella enterica isolates and only in serotypes Typhimurium, Choleraesuis, and Schwarzengrund (1–8). Such isolates have been collected from humans and animals in Europe,(More)