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The plant hormone auxin regulates various developmental processes including root formation, vascular development, and gravitropism. Mutations within the AUX1 gene confer an auxin-resistant root growth phenotype and abolish root gravitropic curvature. Polypeptide sequence similarity to amino acid permeases suggests that AUX1 mediates the transport of an(More)
A partial hominoid skeleton just older than 15 million years from sediments in the Tugen Hills of north central Kenya mandates a revision of the hominoid genus Kenyapithecus, a possible early member of the great ape-human clade. The Tugen Hills specimen represents a new genus, which also incorporates all material previously referable to Kenyapithecus(More)
The early detection of relapse following primary surgery for non-small-cell lung cancer and the characterization of emerging subclones, which seed metastatic sites, might offer new therapeutic approaches for limiting tumour recurrence. The ability to track the evolutionary dynamics of early-stage lung cancer non-invasively in circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA)(More)
We studied the recovery of periphyton and macroinvertebrate communities in a second order stream after a month-long spate that began as increased discharge due to snowmelt in April 2000 but continued through May as a result of frequent rainstorms. We sampled macroinvertebrates and periphyton in June 2000 at three different sites—an upstream site in a(More)
Immune evasion is a hallmark of cancer. Losing the ability to present neoantigens through human leukocyte antigen (HLA) loss may facilitate immune evasion. However, the polymorphic nature of the locus has precluded accurate HLA copy-number analysis. Here, we present loss of heterozygosity in human leukocyte antigen (LOHHLA), a computational tool to(More)
CD25 is expressed at high levels on regulatory T (Treg) cells and was initially proposed as a target for cancer immunotherapy. However, anti-CD25 antibodies have displayed limited activity against established tumors. We demonstrated that CD25 expression is largely restricted to tumor-infiltrating Treg cells in mice and humans. While existing anti-CD25(More)
Sediments in the Tugen Hills, west of Lake Baringo, Kenya, form one of the best fossiliferous successions known in Africa spanning the period from 14 my to less than 4 my. Hominoid fossils have previously been recovered from a number of localities in the region. We describe here a new hominid mandible (KNM-TH 13150) from the site of Tabarin, in the Chemeron(More)