Sophia Maschalidi

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Innate immunity to viral infection involves induction of the type I IFN response; however, dysfunctional regulation of this pathway leads to inappropriate inflammation. Here, we evaluated a nonconsanguineous family of mixed European descent, with 4 members affected by systemic inflammatory and autoimmune conditions, including lupus, with variable clinical(More)
Intracellular Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), TLR7, and TLR9 localize in endosomes and recognize single-stranded RNA and nucleotides from viruses and bacteria. This interaction induces their conformational changes resulting in the production of proinflammatory cytokines and upregulation of cell surface molecules. TLR9 requires a proteolytic cleavage for its(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) use cellular pathways collectively referred to as cross-presentation to stimulate CD8(+) T cells with peptide Ags derived from internalized, exogenous Ags. We have recently reported that DCs rely on aminoterminal trimming of cross-presented peptides by insulin-responsive aminopeptidase (IRAP), an enzyme localized in a regulated(More)
The granule-dependent cytotoxic activity of T and natural killer lymphocytes has progressively emerged as an important effector pathway not only for host defence but also for immune regulation. The analysis of an early-onset, severe, primary immune dysregulatory syndrome known as hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) has been decisive in highlighting(More)
Intracellular Toll-like receptors (TLRs) expressed by dendritic cells recognize nucleic acids derived from pathogens and play an important role in the immune responses against the influenza virus (IAV), a single-stranded RNA sensed by different receptors including TLR7. However, the importance of TLR7 processing in the development of anti-viral immune(More)
The impairment of cytotoxic activity of lymphocytes disturbs immune surveillance and leads to the development of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytic syndrome (HLH). Although cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) control of HLH development is well documented, the role for natural killer (NK)-cell effector functions in the pathogenesis of this immune disorder remains(More)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen involved in nosocomial infections. While a number of studies have demonstrated the roles of TLR2, TLR4 and TLR5 in host defense againt P. aeruginosa infection, the implication of TLR9 in this process has been overlooked. Here, we show that P. aeruginosa DNA stimulates the inflammatory response through TLR9(More)
Antigen cross-presentation by dendritic cells (DC) stimulates cytotoxic T cell activation to promote immunity to intracellular pathogens, viruses and cancer. Phagocytosed antigens generate potent T cell responses, but the signalling and trafficking pathways regulating their cross-presentation are unclear. Here, we show that ablation of the(More)
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening syndrome, characterized by severe hyperinflammation and immunopathological manifestations in several tissues. These features result from organ infiltration by overactivated CD8 T-cells and macrophages, which produce high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-6, and(More)
Proteases generate peptides that bind to MHC class II molecules to interact with a wide diversity of CD4(+) T cells. They are expressed in dedicated organelles: endosomes and lysosomes of professional antigen presenting cells (pAPCs) such as B cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells. The identification of endosomal proteases which produce antigenic peptides(More)