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BACKGROUND Smoking increases the risk of many diseases, and it is also linked to blood DNA methylation changes that may be important in disease etiology. OBJECTIVES We sought to identify novel CpG sites associated with cigarette smoking. METHODS We used two epigenome-wide data sets from the Sister Study to identify and confirm CpG sites associated with(More)
BACKGROUND Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with significant infant morbidity and mortality, and may influence later disease risk. One mechanism by which smoking (and other environmental factors) might have long-lasting effects is through epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation. OBJECTIVES We conducted an epigenome-wide association(More)
BACKGROUND Although many low-penetrant genetic risk factors for breast cancer have been discovered, knowledge about the effect of multiple risk alleles is limited, especially in women <50 years. We therefore investigated the association between multiple risk alleles and breast cancer risk as well as individual effects according to age-approximated pre- and(More)
Recent studies have identified several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with the risk of breast cancer and parity and age at first childbirth are well established and important risk factors for breast cancer. The aim of the present study was to examine the interaction between these environmental factors and genetic variants on breast cancer(More)
In utero exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) has been associated with increased risk of adverse health outcomes such as fertility problems and vaginal as well as breast cancer. Animal studies have linked prenatal DES exposure to lasting DNA methylation changes. We investigated genome-wide DNA methylation and in utero DES exposure in a sample of(More)
Offspring of older mothers are at increased risk of adverse birth outcomes, childhood cancers, type 1 diabetes, and neurodevelopmental disorders. The underlying biologic mechanisms for most of these associations remain obscure. One possibility is that maternal aging may produce lasting changes in the epigenetic features of a child's DNA. To test this, we(More)
BACKGROUND Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use is associated with decreased risk of some cancers. NSAID use modulates the epigenetic profile of normal colonic epithelium and may reduce risk of colon cancer through this pathway; however, the effect of NSAID use on the DNA methylation profile of other tissues including whole blood has not yet(More)
Introduction Cigarette smoke contains > 7,000 chemicals, of which hundreds are known to be harmful and at least 69 are known to cause cancer [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 2010]. Although the significant health effects of smoking are well recognized, smoking remains the largest preventable cause of death in the United States (CDC 2010).(More)
BACKGROUND Breast cancer today has many established risk factors, both genetic and environmental, but these risk factors by themselves explain only part of the total cancer incidence. We have investigated potential interactions between certain known genetic and phenotypic risk factors, specifically nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and height,(More)
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