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Many genes involved in immunity evolve rapidly. It remains unclear, however, to what extent pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) of the innate immune system in vertebrates are subject to recurrent positive selection imposed by pathogens, as suggested by studies in Drosophila, or whether they are evolutionarily constrained. Here, we show that Toll-like(More)
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the clinical presentation and to assess the usefulness of antroduodenal manometry (ADM) and the results of multidisciplinary team management in 12 neurologically normal adolescents (9 girls) with rumination. STUDY DESIGN All patients had extensive investigations that ruled out other causes of their chronic symptoms. We performed ADM(More)
BACKGROUND Anxiety and depression, conditions frequently associated with childhood chronic abdominal pain (AP), are characterized by seasonal exacerbations. A seasonal pattern characterized by a higher frequency of consultations for AP during winter has been suspected but has never, to our knowledge, been demonstrated. We hypothesize the presence of a(More)
Chronic vomiting disorders with diverse causes are seen in children of all ages and present diagnostic and therapeutic challenges to pediatric gastroenterologists. Most patients are diagnosed by history, physical examination, and a basic work-up aimed at excluding obstructive and inflammatory causes. Intractable cases warrant further evaluation for(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW The prevalence of feeding disorders in medically complex children is estimated to be as high as 80%. Enteral tube nutrition (ETN) is commonly used for nutritional support in children with feeding disorders. Adverse consequences of ETN include medical complications, psychosocial problems, and higher healthcare costs. We used a retrospective(More)
The coexistence of Wilson disease with Alport syndrome has not previously been reported. The diagnosis of Wilson disease and its ongoing monitoring is challenging when associated with an underlying renal disease such as Alport syndrome. Proteinuria can lead to low ceruloplasmin since it is among serum proteins inappropriately filtered by the damaged(More)
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