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OBJECTIVE Experts disagree about the causes and significance of the recent increases in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Limited data on population base rates contribute to this uncertainty. Using a population-based sample, the authors sought to estimate the prevalence and describe the clinical characteristics of ASDs in school-age(More)
Stimulant medications, such as methylphenidate (MPH), are the most commonly used, effective treatment for ADHD. MPH acts primarily by inhibiting the dopamine transporter (DAT), a protein responsible for the reuptake of dopamine from the synapse into presynaptic terminals. We sought to evaluate the relationship between DAT1 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR)(More)
Restricted, repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are heterogeneous ranging from stereotypic body movements to rituals to restricted interests. RRBs are most strongly associated with autism but occur in a number of other clinical disorders as well as in typical development. There does not seem to be a category of RRB that is unique or specific to autism and RRB does(More)
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a multisystem, contiguous gene disorder caused by an absence of paternally expressed genes within the 15q11.2-q13 region via one of the three main genetic mechanisms: deletion of the paternally inherited 15q11.2-q13 region, maternal uniparental disomy and imprinting defect. The deletion class is typically subdivided into Type(More)
Individual variability in responses to stimulant drugs may influence risk of stimulant abuse and treatment response. However, the genetic determinants of this variability have yet to be elucidated. The dopamine transporter is an important site of amphetamine action. Therefore, the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1) is a logical candidate gene to study. Using(More)
The dopamine (DA) system has been implicated in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) based on pharmacologic evidence. Because of an interaction between the serotonin (5-HT) and DA systems, the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) has been considered as a candidate ADHD susceptibility gene. Two common polymorphisms, 5-HTTLPR and the intron 2 VNTR,(More)
Autism is a complex genetic disorder. Chromosome 15 is of particular interest in this disorder, because of previous reports of individuals with autism with chromosomal abnormalities in the 15q11-q13 region. Transmission disequilibrium between polymorphisms in this region and autism has been also been reported in some, but not all studies. Recently, a novel(More)
We investigated treatment outcomes of radiotherapy for solitary plasmacytoma (SP) and prognostic factors affecting survival. Between 1996 and 2010, a total of 38 patients were treated with radiotherapy for histologically proven plasmacytoma without evidence of multiple myeloma. Among these, 16 and 22 patients had SP originating from extramedullary soft(More)
Hyperserotonemia in autism is one of the longest-standing biochemical findings in a psychiatric disorder. This well-replicated finding and subsequent studies of platelet serotonin receptors in autism indicate that the serotonin 2A receptor gene (HTR2A) on chromosome 13q is a primary candidate gene in autism. Converging data from recent genome screens also(More)