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Protein phosphorylation is estimated to affect 30% of the proteome and is a major regulatory mechanism that controls many basic cellular processes. Until recently, our biochemical understanding of protein phosphorylation on a global scale has been extremely limited; only one half of the yeast kinases have known in vivo substrates and the phosphorylating(More)
Synaptic inhibition is based on both tonic and phasic release of the inhibitory transmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Although phasic GABA release arises from Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis from neurons, the mechanism of tonic GABA release is unclear. Here we report that tonic inhibition in the cerebellum is due to GABA being released from glial cells by(More)
BACKGROUND Vortioxetine was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in September 2013 for treating major depressive disorder (MDD). Thus far, a number of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials (RCTs) of vortioxetine have been conducted in patients with MDD. We performed a meta-analysis to increase the statistical power(More)
The brain is an organ predisposed to oxidative/nitrosative stress. This is especially true in the case of aging as well as several neurodegenerative diseases. Under such circumstances, a decline in the normal antioxidant defense mechanisms leads to an increase in the vulnerability of the brain to the deleterious effects of oxidative damage. Highly reactive(More)
The mechanism of action of lamotrigine depends on voltage-sensitive sodium channels by which the neuronal membrane is stabilized and the release of excitatory neurotransmitters, such as glutamate and aspartate, is inhibited. Lamotrigine is indicated for maintenance treatment of bipolar I disorder to delay the time to the occurrence of mood episodes for(More)
This study aimed to test the association of the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene with schizophrenia in the Korean population. 334 patients with schizophrenia and 391 healthy volunteers were included. Intron 1 VNTR polymorphism of TH gene was genotyped using polymerase chain reaction techniques. The genotype and allele distribution between patients and(More)
This study evaluated the overall effectiveness and tolerability of adjunctive quetiapine as a continuation therapy for the long-term treatment of bipolar mania. Twenty-three patients were enrolled in this study and received quetiapine add-on treatment in combination with their existing or new mood stabilizers. The clinical assessment was carried out using(More)
NBCn1 (SLC4A7) plays a role in transepithelial HCO3 (-) movement and intracellular pH maintenance in many tissues. In this study, we searched PDZ proteins capable of binding to NBCn1. We screened a protein array membrane, on which 96 different class I PDZ protein peptides were blotted, with the C-terminal domain of NBCn1 fused to GST. Thirteen proteins were(More)
This study evaluated the overall efficacy and tolerability of quetiapine in the treatment of inpatients with acute mania who are intolerant to risperidone in combination with a mood stabilizer. Eighteen patients completed this 3-week trial. The efficacy and tolerability was assessed upon admission, at baseline, and 1 and 3 weeks later. The Young mania(More)
Many tumorigenic processes affect cell-cycle progression by their effects on the levels of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(Kip1) [1,2]. The phosphorylation- and ubiquitination-dependent proteolysis of p27 is implicated in control of the G1-S transition in the cell cycle [3-6]. To determine the factors that control p27 stability, we established a(More)