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The human cytidine deaminase APOBEC3G edits both nascent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and murine leukemia virus (MLV) reverse transcripts, resulting in loss of infectivity. The HIV Vif protein is able to protect both viruses from this innate restriction to infection. Here, we demonstrate that a number of other APOBEC family members from both humans(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS The apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype in response to pharmacological treatments in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains a matter of controversy. This analysis investigated the effect of the APOE genotype on the clinical response to rivastigmine transdermal patch monotherapy or memantine plus rivastigmine patch in patients with mild(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) is a clinical assessment tool that is widely used in clinical trials and practice to evaluate stroke-related neurological deficits. The aim of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of the Korean version of the NIHSS (K-NIHSS) for evaluating Korean stroke(More)
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the frequency of intracranial atherosclerosis among patients with steno-occlusive extracranial carotid artery disease and to determine if there are factors related to the combined intracranial atherosclerosis. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SETTING A tertiary referral hospital. Patients We studied 142 consecutive patients who had(More)
BACKGROUND Socioeconomic status plays an important role in pain coping strategy. Its influence on migraine and tension-type headache may differ by gender. This study aimed to evaluate how socioeconomic status affects the prevalence of migraine and tension-type headache by gender. METHODS We used data from the Korean Headache Survey, a population-based(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the use of multiphasic helical computed tomography (CT) in predicting subsequent development of severe brain edema in patients with acute middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke. DESIGN Case-control study. SETTING Tertiary referral hospital. PATIENTS We studied 31 patients with acute MCA stroke who had a baseline National Institutes(More)
BACKGROUND Recent studies have shown an association between migraine and restless legs syndrome (RLS). However, migraine prevalence peaks from the 20s to 40s whereas RLS prevalence peaks after the 50s. Despite this, reports on how migraine and RLS may be associated by age is limited. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the comorbidity(More)
BACKGROUND Although anxiety and depression have been classified as distinct traits of affective disorders, previous studies have reported their co-occurrence in subjects with migraine. However, few reports are available on the clinical implications of this comorbidity. This study is to assess the comorbidity of anxiety and depression in subjects with(More)
The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and usefulness of the International Classification of Headache Disorders, third edition, beta version (ICHD-3β), and compare the differences with the International Classification of Headache Disorders, second edition (ICHD-2). Consecutive first-visit patients were recruited from 11 headache clinics in(More)