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OBJECTIVE Meta analysis of studies was carried out to examine the effectiveness of functional task training with mental practice on functional performance following stroke. SEARCH STRATEGY An exhaustive search was conducted using computerized databases such as MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane, PsycINFO, and EBSCO (CINAHL). SELECTION CRITERIA The search was(More)
The relationship between interleukin-1β (IL-1β)-induced nociception and the blood glucose level was studied in ICR mice. We found in the present study that intrathecal (i.t.) injection of IL-1β increased pain behavior. In addition, i.t. IL-1β injection caused an elevation of the blood glucose level. The time-course study showed that maximal blood glucose(More)
In the present study, the antinociceptive profiles of eugenol were examined in ICR mice. Eugenol administered orally (from 1 to 10 mg/kg) showed an antinociceptive effect in a dose-dependent manner as measured in the acetic acid-induced writhing test. Duration of antinociceptive action of eugenol maintained at least for 30 min. Moreover, the cumulative(More)
The effect of repeated immobilization stress (RIS) on the expression of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and types of cells that express IL-1beta in hippocampal CA1 region, striatum and paraventricular nucleus (PVN) were investigated in ICR mice. The RIS was induced daily for 2h for 4 consecutive days. In the immunohistochemical study, RIS increased IL-1beta(More)
In the present study, the antinociceptive profiles of vanillin were examined in ICR mice. Vanillin administered orally (from 1 to 10 mg/kg) showed an antinociceptive effect in a dose-dependent manner as measured in the acetic acid-induced writhing test. Duration of antinociceptive action of vanillin maintained at least for 30 min. But, the cumulative(More)
We investigated effects of acetaminophen on LPS-induced hyperalgesia in various pain models. We examined the changes of pain behaviors induced by formalin injected subcutaneously (s.c.) in the hind paw, with substance P (SP) and glutamate injected inthrathecally (i.t.). Hyperalgesia was induced by LPS intraperitoneal injection 1 day prior to the pain test.(More)
BACKGROUND In the present study, the possible anti-diabetic action of biguanide and thiazolidinediones administered supraspinally or spinally was studied in ICR mice. METHODS Mice were intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) or intrathecal (i.t.) treated with 20 or 30 μg metformin, pioglitazone and rosiglitazone in d-glucose fed and streptozotocin-treated(More)
In the present study, the antinociceptive profiles of coumarin were examined in ICR mice. Coumarin administered orally (from 1 to 10 mg/kg) showed an antinociceptive effect in a dose-dependent manner as measured in the acetic acid-induced writhing test. Duration of antinociceptive action of coumarin maintained at least for 60 min. But, the cumulative(More)
Many potential applications such as ocean sampling network, environment monitoring, undersea exploration, disaster prevention, assisted navigation, and mine reconnaissance can be provided by deploying the Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks. Because of the peculiarities of acoustic communication in underwater, the MAC protocol which play a role of managing(More)