Sonya Whitted

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The progressive decline of CD4(+) T cells is a hallmark of disease progression in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection. Whereas the acute phase of the infection is dominated by virus-mediated depletion of memory CD4(+) T cells, chronic infection is often associated with a progressive decline of total CD4(+) T(More)
Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) is known to result in an asymptomatic infection of its natural African monkey host. However, some SIV strains are capable of inducing AIDS-like symptoms and death upon experimental infection of Asian macaques. To further investigate the virulence of natural SIV isolates from African monkeys, pig-tailed (PT) macaques were(More)
African green monkeys (genus Chlorocebus) can be infected with species-specific simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVagm) but do not develop AIDS. These natural hosts of SIV, like sooty mangabeys, maintain high levels of SIV replication but have evolved to avoid immunodeficiency. Elucidating the mechanisms that allow natural hosts to coexist with SIV without(More)
The antagonistic interaction with host restriction proteins is a major driver of evolutionary change for viruses. We previously reported that polymorphisms of the TRIM5α B30.2/SPRY domain impacted the level of SIVsmm viremia in rhesus macaques. Viremia in macaques homozygous for the non-restrictive TRIM5α allele TRIM5(Q) was significantly higher than in(More)
UNLABELLED Tripartite motif-containing protein 5α (TRIM5α) is considered to be a potential target for cell-based gene modification therapy against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. In the present study, we used a relevant rhesus macaque model of infection with simian immunodeficiency virus from sooty mangabey (SIVsm) to evaluate the(More)
A subset of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected macaques progresses rapidly to disease with transient SIV-specific immune responses and high viral loads. Unique SIV variants with convergent Env mutations evolve in these rapid progressor (RP) macaques. To address the pathogenic significance of RP-specific variants, we generated infectious molecular(More)
African green monkeys (genus Chlorocebus) can be infected with SIVagm, but do not develop AIDS. This natural host of SIV, like sooty mangabeys, maintains high levels of SIV replication but has evolved to avoid immunodeficiency. Elucidating the mechanisms that allow the natural hosts to co-exist with SIV without overt disease may provide crucial information(More)
Nonhuman primate-simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) models are powerful tools for studying the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in the brain. Our laboratory recently isolated a neuropathogenic viral swarm, SIVsmH804E, a derivative of SIVsmE543-3, which was the result of sequential intravenous passages of viruses isolated from the(More)
UNLABELLED African green monkeys (AGMs; genus Chlorocebus) are a natural host of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVAGM). As they do not develop simian AIDS, there is great interest in understanding how this species has evolved to avoid immunodeficiency. Adult African green monkeys naturally have low numbers of CD4 T cells and a large population of major(More)
Current antiretroviral therapy (ART) is not sufficient to completely suppress disease progression in the CNS, as indicated by the rising incidence of HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) among infected individuals on ART. It is not clear why some HIV-1-infected patients develop HAND, despite effective repression of viral replication in the(More)