Sonya Whitted

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African green monkeys (genus Chlorocebus) can be infected with species-specific simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVagm) but do not develop AIDS. These natural hosts of SIV, like sooty mangabeys, maintain high levels of SIV replication but have evolved to avoid immunodeficiency. Elucidating the mechanisms that allow natural hosts to coexist with SIV without(More)
Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) is known to result in an asymptomatic infection of its natural African monkey host. However, some SIV strains are capable of inducing AIDS-like symptoms and death upon experimental infection of Asian macaques. To further investigate the virulence of natural SIV isolates from African monkeys, pig-tailed (PT) macaques were(More)
The progressive decline of CD4(+) T cells is a hallmark of disease progression in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection. Whereas the acute phase of the infection is dominated by virus-mediated depletion of memory CD4(+) T cells, chronic infection is often associated with a progressive decline of total CD4(+) T(More)
The antagonistic interaction with host restriction proteins is a major driver of evolutionary change for viruses. We previously reported that polymorphisms of the TRIM5α B30.2/SPRY domain impacted the level of SIVsmm viremia in rhesus macaques. Viremia in macaques homozygous for the non-restrictive TRIM5α allele TRIM5(Q) was significantly higher than in(More)
UNLABELLED Tripartite motif-containing protein 5α (TRIM5α) is considered to be a potential target for cell-based gene modification therapy against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. In the present study, we used a relevant rhesus macaque model of infection with simian immunodeficiency virus from sooty mangabey (SIVsm) to evaluate the(More)
A subset of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected macaques progresses rapidly to disease with transient SIV-specific immune responses and high viral loads. Unique SIV variants with convergent Env mutations evolve in these rapid progressor (RP) macaques. To address the pathogenic significance of RP-specific variants, we generated infectious molecular(More)
Nonhuman primate-simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) models are powerful tools for studying the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in the brain. Our laboratory recently isolated a neuropathogenic viral swarm, SIVsmH804E, a derivative of SIVsmE543-3, which was the result of sequential intravenous passages of viruses isolated from the(More)
Current antiretroviral therapy (ART) is not sufficient to completely suppress disease progression in the CNS, as indicated by the rising incidence of HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) among infected individuals on ART. It is not clear why some HIV-1-infected patients develop HAND, despite effective repression of viral replication in the(More)
UNLABELLED Although nonhuman primate models of neuro-AIDS have made tremendous contributions to our understanding of disease progression in the central nervous system (CNS) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals, each model holds advantages and limitations. In this study, in vivo passage of SIVsmE543 was conducted to obtain a(More)
Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of macaques can result in central nervous system disorders, such as meningitis and encephalitis. We studied 10 animals inoculated with brain-derived virus from animals with SIV encephalitis. Over half of the macaques developed SIV-induced neurologic disease. Elevated levels of systemic immune activation were(More)