Sonya M Billiard

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Planar halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (pHAHs), such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (dioxin), show strong binding affinity for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and are potent inducers of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A). It is widely accepted that dioxin toxicity is largely AHR mediated; however, the role of CYP1A activity in causing that toxicity is(More)
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous, environmental contaminants that pose a potential risk to fish populations. Both field and laboratory studies suggest that exposure of the early life stages of fish to PAH can mimic the embryotoxic effects of the planar halogenated hydrocarbons (PHHs), the most potent of which is(More)
Induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP1A), as measured by liver ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), was used to derive relative potency factors (RPFs) for several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), chosen for their induction potency in a rainbow trout liver cell line (RTL-W1). Potency for causing(More)
Although p53 has been extensively studied in mammalian models, relatively little is known about its specific function in lower vertebrates. It has long been assumed that p53 pathways characterized in mammals apply to other vertebrates as well. Fish provide a useful model for the study of environmental carcinogenesis, and populations of fish inhabiting(More)
Hypoxic events often occur in waters contaminated with toxic chemicals, including agonists of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). HIF-1alpha, the mediator of cellular responses to hypoxia, shares a dimerization partner (ARNT) with AhR and reciprocal crosstalk may occur. Studies addressing AhR/hypoxia crosstalk in mammalian cells have produced contradictory(More)
A study was conducted in a marine inlet to assess the effects of untreated discharges from a pulp and paper mill, a municipality, and industries in western Newfoundland on winter flounder (Pleuronectes americanus), a fish species shown previously to be sensitive to environmental contaminants in sediment. The fish were captured by SCUBA divers about 2 km(More)
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. Traditionally, much of the research has focused on the carcinogenic potential of specific PAHs, such as benzo(a)pyrene, but recent studies using sensitive fish models have shown that exposure to PAHs alters normal fish development. Some PAHs can induce a teratogenic phenotype(More)
This study investigated whether ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in rainbow trout exposed to mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) could be predicted from induction equivalency factors (IEF). The test PAHs were classified into strong and weak inducers on the basis of similar exposure-response curves. Induction equivalency factors(More)
The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) phenanthrene and retene (7-isopropyl-1-methyl phenanthrene) are lethal to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) larvae during chronic exposures. Phenanthrene is a low-toxicity, non-cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A)-inducing compound that accumulates in fish tissues during exposure to lethal concentrations in water. Retene(More)
Chronic changes were measured in fish downstream from a pulp and paper mill located in the Humber Arm, Newfoundland, Canada. Cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus) downstream of the mill were longer and heavier at an earlier age than reference fish. Condition factor was similar among sites. Hepatosomatic indices and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity were(More)