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An array of cortical and subcortical structures have been implicated in the recognition of emotion from facial expressions. It remains unknown how these regions communicate as parts of a system to achieve recognition, but white matter tracts are likely critical to this process. We hypothesized that (1) damage to white matter tracts would be associated with(More)
Cognitive models of word production correlate the word frequency effect (i.e., the fact that words which appear with less frequency take longer to produce) with an increased processing cost to activate the whole-word (lexical) phonological representation. We performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while subjects produced overt naming(More)
The production of sign language involves two large articulators (the hands) moving through space and contacting the body. In contrast, speech production requires small movements of the tongue and vocal tract with no observable spatial contrasts. Nonetheless, both language types exhibit a sublexical layer of structure with similar properties (e.g., segments,(More)
Speech production introduces signal changes in fMRI data that can mimic or mask the task-induced BOLD response. Rapid event-related designs with variable ISIs address these concerns by minimizing the correlation of task and speech-related signal changes without sacrificing efficiency; however, the increase in residual variance due to speech still decreases(More)
Impairments in phonological processing have been associated with damage to the region of the left posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG), but the extent to which this area supports phonological processing, independent of semantic processing, is less clear. We used repetition priming and neural repetition suppression during functional magnetic resonance(More)
Neuroscientific research has consistently found that the perception of an affective state in another activates the observer's own neural substrates for the corresponding state, which is likely the neural mechanism for "true empathy." However, to date there has not been a brain-imaging investigation of so-called "cognitive empathy", whereby one "actively(More)
Apoptosis depends upon the activation of intracellular caspases which are classically induced by either an intrinsic (mitochondrial based) or extrinsic (cytokine) pathway. However, in the process of explaining how endotoxin activated monocytes are able to induce apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells when co-cultured, we uncovered a transcellular(More)
Multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data is an emerging approach for probing the neural correlates of cognition. MVPA allows cognitive states to be modeled as distributed patterns of neural activity and classified according to stimulus conditions. In practice, building a robust, generalizable classification(More)
Model quality is rarely assessed in fMRI data analyses and less often reported. This may have contributed to several shortcomings in the current fMRI data analyses, including: (1) Model mis-specification, leading to incorrect inference about the activation-maps, SPM[t] and SPM[F]; (2) Improper model selection based on the number of activated voxels, rather(More)
Group-level voxelwise statistical analyses of lesion-deficit relationships have been used to implicate brain structures critical for specific aspects of human cognition and behavior. Current approaches fail to account for the role of fiber tract disruptions in causing deficit, and confound cortical damage with damage to fibers of passage. Here, we develop a(More)