Sonja Welsch

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Positive-strand RNA viruses are known to rearrange cellular membranes to facilitate viral genome replication. The biogenesis and three-dimensional organization of these membranes and the link between replication and virus assembly sites is not fully clear. Using electron microscopy, we find Dengue virus (DENV)-induced vesicles, convoluted membranes, and(More)
Mammals encode proteins that inhibit viral replication at the cellular level. In turn, certain viruses have evolved genes that can functionally counteract these intrinsic restrictions. Human CD317 (BST-2/HM1.24/tetherin) is a restriction factor that blocks release of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) from the cell surface and can be overcome by(More)
HIV-1 assembly and release are believed to occur at the plasma membrane in most host cells with the exception of primary macrophages, for which exclusive budding at late endosomes has been reported. Here, we applied a novel ultrastructural approach to assess HIV-1 budding in primary macrophages in an immunomarker-independent manner. Infected macrophages(More)
Correlative electron and fluorescence microscopy has the potential to elucidate the ultrastructural details of dynamic and rare cellular events, but has been limited by low precision and sensitivity. Here we present a method for direct mapping of signals originating from ∼20 fluorescent protein molecules to 3D electron tomograms with a precision of less(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) can disseminate between CD4(+) T cells via diffusion-limited cell-free viral spread or by directed cell-cell transfer using virally induced structures termed virological synapses. Although T-cell virological synapses have been well characterized, it is unclear whether this mode of viral spread is susceptible to(More)
Several major human pathogens, including the filoviruses, paramyxoviruses, and rhabdoviruses, package their single-stranded RNA genomes within helical nucleocapsids, which bud through the plasma membrane of the infected cell to release enveloped virions. The virions are often heterogeneous in shape, which makes it difficult to study their structure and(More)
Enveloped viruses exit their host cell by budding from a cellular membrane and thereby spread from one cell to another. Virus budding in general involves the distortion of a cellular membrane away from the cytoplasm, envelopment of the viral capsid by one or more lipid bilayers that are enriched in viral membrane glycoproteins, and a fission event that(More)
Macrophages are reservoirs of HIV-1 infection, proposed to transmit virus to CD4(+) T cells, the primary target of the virus. Here we report that human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) rapidly spread HIV-1 to autologous CD4(+) T cells resulting in productive infection. Transmission takes place across transient adhesive contacts between T cells and MDMs,(More)
Direct cell-cell spread of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type-1 (HIV-1) at the virological synapse (VS) is an efficient mode of dissemination between CD4(+) T cells but the mechanisms by which HIV-1 proteins are directed towards intercellular contacts is unclear. We have used confocal microscopy and electron tomography coupled with functional virology and(More)
Protease inhibitors (PI) act by blocking human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) polyprotein processing, but there is no direct quantitative correlation between the degree of impairment of Gag processing and virion infectivity at low PI concentrations. To analyze the consequences of partial processing, virus particles were produced in the presence of limiting PI(More)