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Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, yet there is little mechanistic information available in the literature. To improve this, laboratory models for cigarette mainstream smoke (MS) inhalation-induced chronic disease development are needed. The current study investigated the effects of exposing male(More)
To analyze the role of interleukin-10 (IL-10) in bacterial cerebral infections, we studied cerebral listeriosis in IL-10-deficient (IL-10(-/-)) and wild-type (WT) mice, the latter of which express high levels of IL-10 in both primary and secondary cerebral listeriosis. IL-10(-/-) mice succumbed to primary as well as secondary listeriosis, whereas WT mice(More)
Cerebral listeriosis is a life-threatening disease. However, little is known about the bacterial virulence factors responsible for the severe course of disease and the factors of the immune system contributing to the control of Listeria monocytogenes (LM) or even to the damage of the brain. To analyze the importance of the actA gene of LM, which mediates(More)
Toxoplasma gondii is a parasite causing asymptomatic, persistent encephalitis. Protective CD4 and CD8 T cells are recruited to and accumulate in the brain in acute Toxoplasma encephalitis (TE), with slowly decreasing numbers in chronic TE. It is unclear how the size of the intracerebral T cell pool is regulated. Conceivably, permanent recruitment,(More)
The invasion of the CNS by pathogens poses a major risk for damage of the highly vulnerable brain. The aim of the present study was to analyze immunological mechanisms that may prevent spread of infections to the CNS. Intraperitoneal application of Listeria monocytogenes to mice induced infection of the spleen, whereas pathogens remained absent from the(More)
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