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A growing body of evidence suggests that an interference with dopamine (DA) transmission disrupts maternal behavior in the rat. The present brain microdialysis study was therefore conducted to investigate whether infants can modulate ventral striatal DA release in mother rats. There was a significant rise in the extracellular concentrations DA,(More)
Amino acid analysis of autopsied human brain showed reduced glutathione (GSH) content significantly lower in the substantia nigra than in other brain regions. GSH was virtually absent in the nigra of patients with Parkinson's disease. Oxidative degradation of L-DOPA and dopamine in vivo may generate reactive oxygen species (hydrogen peroxide, superoxide,(More)
BACKGROUND Early enteral nutrition with solutions containing prebiotics (fiber) and probiotics (Lactobacillus) is suggested to reduce bacterial translocation and minimize the incidence of infections after liver transplantation. METHODS In a prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial consisting of 95 patients, we compared the incidence of(More)
Female rats with continuous access to water and 6% ethanol were given bilateral ventral striatal 6-OHDA infusions, which induced pronounced striatal depletions of dopamine. The postoperative ethanol consumption of these rats was not significantly affected in comparison to vehicle-infused controls. In a second experiment, female rats received escalating(More)
OBJECTIVE Early enteral nutrition with fiber-containing solutions plus Lactobacillus may reduce bacterial translocation and minimize the incidence of infections after surgery. METHODS In a prospective, randomized trial in three groups (n = 30/group) of patients after major abdominal surgery, we compared our previous regimen with parenteral nutrition or(More)
Repeated dietary consumption of the neurotoxic amino acid beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), found in the seeds of Cycas circinalis, has been postulated as causing both amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and the parkinsonism-dementia syndrome (PD) that were formerly very prevalent among the indigenous people of the Marianas Islands. Cynomolgus monkeys(More)
The effects of lesions to the mesolimbic dopamine system on maternal and sexual behaviors in the female rat was assessed. Rat dams that were given ventral tegmental area microinfusions of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) during lactation showed a persistent deficit in pup retrieval but were not impaired with respect to nursing, nest building, or maternal(More)
The effects of dopamine-depleting 6-OHDA infusions in the ventral or dorsal striatum on maternal and sexual behaviors were examined in female rats. Like sham-operated controls, lactating rats receiving 6-OHDA in the ventral striatum built good nests, nursed the infants and showed maternal aggression toward strange intruders. By contrast, the lesioned(More)
Concentrations of glutamic acid have been reported to be elevated in fasting plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS); glycine concentrations have also been reported to be increased in the CSF of such patients. Autopsy studies have shown glutamate contents to be significantly decreased in brain and spinal(More)
BACKGROUND Outbreaks of health care-associated infections in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) are frequent and have received more attention in medical literature than outbreaks from other types of intensive care units (ICUs). The objective of this systematic review was to identify differences between outbreaks of health care-associated infections in(More)