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We assessed the water requirements of ethanol from corn grain and crop residue. Estimates are explicit in terms of sources-green (GW) and blue (BW) water, consumptive and nonconsumptive requirements across the lifecycle, including evapotranspiration, application and conveyance losses, biorefinery uses, and water use of energy inputs, and displaced(More)
Debates surrounding the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from land use of biofuels production have created a need to quantify the relative land use GHG intensity of fossil fuels. When contrasting land use GHG intensity of fossil fuel and biofuel production, it is the energy yield that greatly distinguishes the two. Although emissions released from land(More)
California has taken a leading role in regulating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, requiring that its economy-wide emissions be brought back down to the 1990 level by 2020. The state also has a long-term, aspirational goal of an 80 percent reduction below the 1990 level by 2050. While the steps needed to achieve the near-term target have already been clearly(More)
This paper examines the link between the ambient level of particulate pollution and subsequent human health effects and various sources of uncertainty when total exposure is taken into consideration. The exposure simulation model statistically simulates daily personal total exposure to ambient PM and nonambient PM generated from indoor sources. It(More)
Few integrated analysis models examine significant U.S. transportation greenhouse gas emission reductions within an integrated energy system. Our analysis, using a bottom-up MARKet ALocation (MARKAL) model, found that stringent system-wide CO2 reduction targets will be required to achieve significant CO2 reductions from the transportation sector. Mitigating(More)
Jurisdictions throughout the world are contemplating greenhouse gas (GHG) miti-gation strategies that will enable meeting long-term GHG targets. Many jurisdictions are now focusing on the 2020–2050 timeframe. We conduct an inter-model comparison of nine California statewide energy models with GHG mitigation scenarios to 2050 to better understand common(More)
We model the California Energy System to 2050 under policy and technology scenarios. The model optimizes technology and resource investments to meet emissions targets. Deep emissions cuts (474%) are achieved across all reduction scenarios. Carbon capture enables negative emission biofuels and allows more petroleum use. Greenhouse gas mitigation cost is(More)
California's low carbon fuel standard (LCFS) was designed to incentivize a diverse array of available strategies for reducing transportation greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It provides strong incentives for fuels with lower GHG emissions, while explicitly requiring a 10% reduction in California's transportation fuel GHG intensity by 2020. This paper(More)