Opening of CLC chloride channels is coupled to the translocation of the permeant anion. From the recent structure determination of bacterial CLC proteins in the closed and open configuration, a glutamate residue was hypothesized to form part of the Cl--sensitive gate. The negatively charged side-chain of the glutamate was suggested to occlude the permeation… (More)
The pathways of lead (Pb(2+)) uptake were studied in fura-2-loaded cerebellar granule cells from 8-day-old rats. In a nominal Ca-free external bath, Pb(2+) (5-50 microM) determined an increase of the fluorescence emission ratio (R = E(340)/E(380)) even in the absence of any specific stimulus. This rise was dose-dependent, was not significantly affected by… (More)
CLC Cl- channels are homodimers in which each subunit has a proper pore and a (fast) gate. An additional slow gate acts on both pores. A conserved glutamate (E166 in CLC-0) is a major determinant of gating in CLC-0 and is crucially involved in Cl-/H+ antiport of CLC-ec1, a CLC of known structure. We constructed tandem dimers with one wild-type (WT) and one… (More)
CLC proteins are a nine-member gene family of Cl- channels that have diverse roles in the plasma membrane and in intracellular organelles. The recent structure determination of bacterial CLC homologues by Dutzler et al. was a breakthrough for the structure-function analysis of CLC channels. This review describes the mechanisms of inhibition of muscle type… (More)
In this paper we conjecture that neuronal networks develop following an optimality principle. We point out that a neuronal outgrowth in culture may be seen as the solution of a classical optimization problem: the "Steiner Problem". A neuron might grow minimizing a "cost", which may be determined by the viscoelastic properties of the neuron cytoplasm. We… (More)
Contact Information Analyzing the social behavior (application activity patterns, mobility patterns) of In-Research Interests ternet users and designing and analyzing systems that take such behavior into account for scaling and usability purposes Conferences " TailGate: Handling long-tail content with a little help from friends " .
I. DESCRIPTION OF THE DEMO This demonstration will present a tool that allows the evaluation of the impact of P2P distribution on video quality, as a function of various parameters and design choices of the streaming system, such as: • media-aware chunkisation with and without substreaming vs. non-media-aware chunkisation; • different chunk trading… (More)