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Question: Are there spatial structures in the composition of plant communities? Methods: Identification and measurement of spatial structures is a topic of great interest in plant ecology. Univariate measurements of spatial autocorrelation such as Moran's I and Geary's c are widely used, but extensions to the multivariate case (i.e. multi-species) are rare.(More)
It is a challenge to find effective methods to estimate biomass over a large range of biomass values in diverse plant communities, such as typically found in mountain grasslands. We compared the performance of three non-destructive methods for estimating plant biomass (3D quadrat: a point quadrat method, plate meter: a measure of physical volume, and visual(More)
The relationship between individual performance and nonrandom use of habitat is fundamental to ecology; however, empirical tests of this relationship remain limited, especially for higher orders of selection like that of the home range. We quantified the association between lifetime reproductive success (LRS) and variables describing lifetime home ranges(More)
Spatial variation of the ‘predation risk’ due to human activities or distribution may increase the sexual difference in habitat selection. Indeed, females with offspring are usually more risk adverse than males. Based on a long-term wild boar study, we analysed the diurnal distribution of female and male wild boar before, during and after the hunting(More)
Many previous studies have pointed out that, when resources are limited, the potential for competition should be high among sympatric species that display overlaps in habitat and nutritional niches. However, reliable evidence of competition between red deer (Cervus elaphus) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) has not been yet reported for life history traits(More)
We demonstrate surface plasmon resonance (SPR) fiber devices based upon ultraviolet inscription of a grating-type structure into both single-layered and multilayered thin films deposited on the flat side of a lapped D-shaped fiber. The single-layered devices were fabricated from germanium, while the multilayered ones comprised layers of germanium, silica,(More)
Increasing populations of large herbivores during the last decades have had a major impact on vegetation. While several studies have looked for quantifying this impact in terms of plant biomass, plant survival or financial costs, the potential benefit of using the response of the vegetation to changes in browsing pressure by large herbivores to monitor(More)
Geochemical and geostatistical study of the chromium concentration in groundwater occurring at variable depths of 12 to 33.5 m (40 to 110 ft) in the Karachi urban area of Pakistan have been made. Samples were collected at variable distances, with a maximum of 1 km interval, on the bases of population, industries, types, and density. The chromium(More)
Hydrogenated amorphous carbon films with diamond-like structures have been formed on different substrates at very low energies and temperatures by a plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) process employing acetylene as the precursor gas. The plasma source was of a cascaded arc type with argon as the carrier gas. The films grown at very high(More)