Sonia Palminiello

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Down syndrome (DS) is the most common genetic disorder associated with mental retardation (MR). It is believed that many of the phenotypic features of DS stem from enhanced expression of a set of genes located within the triplicated region on chromosome 21. Among those genes is DYRK1A encoding dual-specificity proline-directed serine/treonine kinase, which,(More)
Carbonic anhydrase II (CA II) is one of 14 isozymes of carbonic anhydrases, zinc metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate. Mutations in CA II in humans lead to osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis and cerebral calcifications, a disorder often associated with mental retardation. Recently, new avenues in CA(More)
Alphab-crystallin (CRYAB) is a small heat shock protein with a chaperoning activity that is present in the postnatal healthy human brain in oligodendrocytes and in a few astrocytes. The involvement of CRYAB in cell differentiation, proliferation, signaling, cytoskeletal assembly, and apoptosis in various model systems has suggested that it might also play a(More)
Down syndrome (DS) results from triplication of the whole or distal part of human chromosome 21. Persons with DS suffer from deficits in learning and memory and cognitive functions in general, and, starting from early development, their brains show dendritic and spine structural alterations and cell loss. These defects concern many cortical brain regions as(More)
By using a proteomic approach, we found increased levels of carbonic anhydrase II (CA II) in the brain of Ts65Dn mice, a mouse model for Down syndrome (DS). Further immunoblot analyses showed that the levels of CA II are increased not only in the brain of adult Ts65Dn mice but also in the brain of infants and young children with DS. Cellular localization of(More)
Our previous proteomic studies disclosed upregulation of alphaB-crystallin, a small heat shock protein, in the brain tissue of Ts65Dn mice, a mouse model for Down syndrome (DS). To validate data obtained in model animals, we studied at present the levels and distribution of total alphaB-crystallin and its forms phosphorylated at Ser-45 and Ser-59 in the(More)
Compelling lines of evidence indicate that overexpression of dual-specificity tyrosine-(Y)-phosphorylation regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A) in subjects with trisomy 21 (Down syndrome[DS]) contributes to the abnormal structure and function of the DS brain. In the present study, we used a novel, phospho-dependent antibody recognizing DYRK1A only with(More)
Oxidative stress is the imbalance between production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ability of the biological systems to readily detoxify the reactive intermediates or to repair the resulting damage. Disturbances in the normal redox state of tissues can cause toxic effects through the production of peroxides and free radicals that damage all(More)
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