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CONTEXT Because of methodological limitations, the results of the few prospective studies assessing long-term cognitive effects of prenatal cocaine exposure are inconsistent. OBJECTIVE To assess effects of prenatal cocaine exposure and quality of caregiving environment on 4-year cognitive outcomes. DESIGN Longitudinal, prospective, masked comparison(More)
The present study investigated the neurobehavioral outcomes of fetal cocaine exposure. Attempts were made to control, by design or statistical analysis, for significant confounders. Timing and amount of drug exposures were considered, and biologic measures of exposure were quantified to classify exposure severity. One hundred sixty-one non-cocaine and 158(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess school-age cognitive and achievement outcomes in children with prenatal cocaine exposure, controlling for confounding drug and environmental factors. STUDY DESIGN At age 9 years, 371 children (192 cocaine exposure [CE]; 179 non-cocaine exposure [NCE]) were assessed for IQ and school achievement in a longitudinal, prospective study from(More)
A large cohort of children exposed to cocaine in utero (n=189) were followed prospectively from birth to 4 years of age and compared to nonexposed children (n=185) on the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Preschool (CELF-P), a measure of receptive and expressive language abilities. Children exposed to cocaine in utero performed more poorly on the(More)
PURPOSE Using a case-control design, patterns of drug use, psychological symptoms, and behavioral characteristics associated with 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA ) use were surveyed in a sample of older adolescents (median age 20). METHODS One hundred (42 MDMA users; 58 non-MDMA users) older adolescents were recruited using the "snowball"(More)
The effects of prenatal cocaine use on quality of maternal-infant interactions were evaluated using the Nursing Child Assessment Feeding Scale (NCAFS). A total of 341 (155 cocaine using; 186 non-cocaine using) low socioeconomic, primarily African-American dyads were evaluated longitudinally at birth, 6.5, and 12 months. Group differences over time were(More)
CONTEXT Maternal use of cocaine during pregnancy remains a significant public health problem, particularly in urban areas of the United States and among women of low socioeconomic status. Few longitudinal studies have examined cocaine-exposed infants, however, and findings are contradictory because of methodologic limitations. OBJECTIVE To assess the(More)
To assess teratogenic effects of cocaine exposure and maternal psychological distress on birth outcomes, we conducted a longitudinal prospective study of 415 infants (218 cocaine-exposed--CE, 197 nonexposed--NE). Drug exposure was determined through a combination of maternal self-report, urine, and meconium screens. Maternal psychological distress(More)
Maternal cocaine use during pregnancy can affect the infant directly through toxic effects or indirectly through cocaine's influence on maternal psychological status. We followed 160 cocaine exposed and 56 nonexposed infants and their mothers identified at birth through interview and/or urine screen. Although cocaine exposure defined the groups, infant(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess whether there is an association of level of fetal cocaine exposure to developmental precursors of speech-language skills at 1 year of age, after controlling for confounding factors. DESIGN In a prospective, longitudinal, quasi-experimental, matched cohort design, 3 cocaine exposure groups were defined by maternal self-report and infant(More)