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CONTEXT Because of methodological limitations, the results of the few prospective studies assessing long-term cognitive effects of prenatal cocaine exposure are inconsistent. OBJECTIVE To assess effects of prenatal cocaine exposure and quality of caregiving environment on 4-year cognitive outcomes. DESIGN Longitudinal, prospective, masked comparison(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess 6-year-old cocaine- and noncocaine-exposed children's mental health outcomes controlling for potential confounders. METHODS The sample consisted of 322 children [169 cocaine exposed (CE) and 153 noncocaine exposed (NCE)] enrolled in a longitudinal study since birth. At age 6, children were assessed for mental health symptoms using the(More)
A large cohort of children exposed to cocaine in utero (n=189) were followed prospectively from birth to 4 years of age and compared to nonexposed children (n=185) on the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Preschool (CELF-P), a measure of receptive and expressive language abilities. Children exposed to cocaine in utero performed more poorly on the(More)
CONTEXT Maternal use of cocaine during pregnancy remains a significant public health problem, particularly in urban areas of the United States and among women of low socioeconomic status. Few longitudinal studies have examined cocaine-exposed infants, however, and findings are contradictory because of methodologic limitations. OBJECTIVE To assess the(More)
PURPOSE Using a case-control design, patterns of drug use, psychological symptoms, and behavioral characteristics associated with 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA ) use were surveyed in a sample of older adolescents (median age 20). METHODS One hundred (42 MDMA users; 58 non-MDMA users) older adolescents were recruited using the "snowball"(More)
Maternal cocaine use during pregnancy can affect the infant directly through toxic effects or indirectly through cocaine's influence on maternal psychological status. We followed 160 cocaine exposed and 56 nonexposed infants and their mothers identified at birth through interview and/or urine screen. Although cocaine exposure defined the groups, infant(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess school-age cognitive and achievement outcomes in children with prenatal cocaine exposure, controlling for confounding drug and environmental factors. STUDY DESIGN At age 9 years, 371 children (192 cocaine exposure [CE]; 179 non-cocaine exposure [NCE]) were assessed for IQ and school achievement in a longitudinal, prospective study from(More)
The present study investigated the neurobehavioral outcomes of fetal cocaine exposure. Attempts were made to control, by design or statistical analysis, for significant confounders. Timing and amount of drug exposures were considered, and biologic measures of exposure were quantified to classify exposure severity. One hundred sixty-one non-cocaine and 158(More)
Data are equivocal regarding the long-term consequences of prenatal exposure to cocaine on school-aged children. We compared 101 children exposed prenatally to cocaine with 130 unexposed children on measures of intelligence, visual motor, and motor abilities at age 7 years. Bivariate analyses revealed that cocaine-exposed children scored significantly lower(More)
How and to what extent fetal cocaine exposure produces specific, negative, long-term effects on infant neurodevelopmental competence has not yet been determined. We have argued previously that results from animal studies, the findings of intrauterine growth retardation in human studies, and the markedly higher incidence of numerous associated risk factors(More)