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Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (basonym M. paratuberculosis) is the causative agent of paratuberculosis, a chronic enteritis of ruminants. To control the considerable economic effect that paratuberculosis has on the livestock industry, a vaccine that induces protection with minimal side effects is required. We employed transposon mutagenesis(More)
A DNA sequence differing between sheep and cattle types of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was identified and used to develop a PCR test. The test unequivocally distinguished all sheep types from cattle types and was negative for a wide range of other strains from the Mycobacterium avium-Mycobacterium intracellulare complex. The test will be(More)
A pilot-scale pasteurizer operating under validated turbulent flow (Reynolds number, 11,050) was used to study the heat sensitivity of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis added to raw milk. The ATCC 19698 type strain, ATCC 43015 (Linda, human isolate), and three bovine isolates were heated in raw whole milk for 15 s at 63, 66, 69, and 72 degrees C(More)
The paracrystalline surface protein array of the pathogenic bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida is a primary virulence factor with novel binding capabilities. The species-specific structural gene (vapA) for this array protein (A-protein) was cloned into lambda gt11 but was unstable when expressed in Escherichia coli, undergoing an 816-base pair deletion due to(More)
The botulinum neurotoxins are the most dangerous toxins known (BoNTs serotypes A-G) and induce profound flaccid neuromuscular paralysis by blocking nerve-muscle communication. Poisoned motoneurons react by emitting a sprouting network known to establish novel functional synapses with the abutting muscle fiber. Understanding how our motoneurons are capable(More)
The Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) includes the closely related species M. avium, M. intracellulare and M. paratuberculosis. The insertion elements IS900, IS901, IS1245 and IS1311 were used as DNA probes to characterize by restriction fragment polymorphisms (RFLPs) eight reference strains, three animal isolates of M. paratuberculosis from outside New(More)
The chvB operon of Agrobacterium tumefaciens is required for bacterial attachment to plant cells and for efficient crown gall tumor formation. As defined by the virulence phenotypes of mutants with transposon insertions mapping in the region, the operon was previously mapped to a 5-kilobase (kb) stretch of chromosomal DNA. We report here that the operon is(More)
A mutant of Rhizobium meliloti that elicited the formation of inactive nodules in alfalfa was found not to form beta-(1----2) glucan in vivo or in vitro. It was nonmotile because it lacks flagella. The 235-kilodalton protein which acts as an intermediate in beta-(1----2) glucan synthesis was undetectable in the mutant. These properties of the mutant are(More)
High osmolarity in the culture medium of growing Agrobacterium tumefaciens strongly inhibited the accumulation of cellular beta(1-2) glucan. However, the enzymatic system required for the synthesis of this polysaccharide from UDP-glucose was not repressed by high osmolarity. Mutants of A. tumefaciens and Rhizobium meliloti affected in beta(1-2) glucan(More)
Mycobacterium paratuberculosis causes Johne's disease, a common wasting disease in ruminants. As a first step in studying virulence mechanisms, libraries of random mutants were produced in two M. paratuberculosis strains by using the conditionally replicating shuttle phasmid phAE94 which contains the transposon Tn5367. Two thousand mutants were screened for(More)