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We have carried out a cell-based screen aimed at discovering small molecules that activate p53 and have the potential to decrease tumor growth. Here, we describe one of our hit compounds, tenovin-1, along with a more water-soluble analog, tenovin-6. Via a yeast genetic screen, biochemical assays, and target validation studies in mammalian cells, we show(More)
Currently, around 11 million people are living with a tumour that contains an inactivating mutation of TP53 (the human gene that encodes p53) and another 11 million have tumours in which the p53 pathway is partially abrogated through the inactivation of other signalling or effector components. The p53 pathway is therefore a prime target for new cancer drug(More)
The p53 tumour suppressor protein is regulated by ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation. In normal cells p53 is constitutively ubiquitylated by the Mdm2 ubiquitin ligase. When the p53 response is activated by stress signals p53 levels rise due to inhibition of this degradative pathway. Here we show that p53 is modified by the small ubiquitin-like(More)
Peutz-Jeghers syndrome is an inherited cancer syndrome that results in a greatly increased risk of developing tumors in those affected. The causative gene is a protein kinase termed LKB1, predicted to function as a tumor suppressor. The mechanism by which LKB1 is regulated in cells is not known. Here, we demonstrate that stimulation of Rat-2 or embryonic(More)
In normal cells, p53 is maintained at a low level by ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, but after genotoxic insult this process is inhibited and p53 levels rise dramatically. Ubiquitination of p53 requires the ubiquitin-activating enzyme Ubc5 as a ubiquitin conjugation enzyme and Mdm2, which acts as a ubiquitin protein ligase. In addition to the N-terminal(More)
BACKGROUND The CDKN2/INK4A tumour suppressor gene is deleted or mutated in a large number of human cancers. Overexpression of its product, p16, has been shown to block the transition through the G1/S phase of the cell cycle in a pRb-dependent fashion by inhibiting the cyclin D-dependent kinases cdk4 and cdk6. Reconstitution of p16 function in transformed(More)
Leptomycin B is a cytotoxin which directly interacts with and inhibits the action of CRM1, an essential mediator of the nuclear exit of proteins containing nuclear export signals (NES) of the HIV1 REV type. We show that addition of leptomycin B to human primary fibroblasts increased the levels of the p53 tumor suppressor protein. This was accompanied by the(More)
Inactivation of p53 function is a common event in cancer. Approximately 50% of human tumours express mutant p53 and there is evidence that in others, including many childhood tumours, p53 function is impaired in other ways. These defects in p53 function may be due to the alteration of cellular factors that modulate p53 or to the expression of viral(More)
Inactivation of p53 functions is an almost universal feature of human cancer cells. This has spurred a tremendous effort to develop p53 based cancer therapies. Gene therapy using wild-type p53, delivered by adenovirus vectors, is now in widespread use in China. Other biologic approaches include the development of oncolytic viruses designed to replicate and(More)
Mdm2 has been shown to promote its own ubiquitination and the ubiquitination of the p53 tumour suppressor by virtue of its E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. This modification targets Mdm2 and p53 for degradation by the proteasome. The p14ARF tumour suppressor has been shown to inhibit degradation of p53 mediated by Mdm2. Several models have been proposed to(More)