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Peutz-Jeghers syndrome is an inherited cancer syndrome that results in a greatly increased risk of developing tumors in those affected. The causative gene is a protein kinase termed LKB1, predicted to function as a tumor suppressor. The mechanism by which LKB1 is regulated in cells is not known. Here, we demonstrate that stimulation of Rat-2 or embryonic(More)
The p53 tumour suppressor protein is regulated by ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation. In normal cells p53 is constitutively ubiquitylated by the Mdm2 ubiquitin ligase. When the p53 response is activated by stress signals p53 levels rise due to inhibition of this degradative pathway. Here we show that p53 is modified by the small ubiquitin-like(More)
BACKGROUND A common event in the development of human neoplasia is the inactivation of a damage-inducible cell-cycle checkpoint pathway regulated by p53. One approach to the restoration of this pathway is to mimic the activity of key downstream effectors. The cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitor p21(WAF1) is one such molecule, as it is a major mediator(More)
Mdm2 has been shown to promote its own ubiquitination and the ubiquitination of the p53 tumour suppressor by virtue of its E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. This modification targets Mdm2 and p53 for degradation by the proteasome. The p14ARF tumour suppressor has been shown to inhibit degradation of p53 mediated by Mdm2. Several models have been proposed to(More)
Pharmacological activation of wild-type p53 has been found to protect normal cells in culture from cytotoxicity and nuclear aberrations caused by conventional cancer therapeutics. Hence, small-molecule p53 activators could have clinical benefits as chemoprotectants for cancer patients bearing p53-mutant tumors. We have evaluated 16 p53-based cyclotherapy(More)
The complete nucleotide sequence of the plum pox virus (PPV) RNA genome has been determined. The RNA sequence is 9786 nucleotides in length, excluding the 3'-terminal poly(A) tail. An AUG triplet at position 147-149 was assigned as the initiation codon for the translation of the genome size viral polyprotein which would consist of 3140 amino acid residues.(More)
Currently, around 11 million people are living with a tumour that contains an inactivating mutation of TP53 (the human gene that encodes p53) and another 11 million have tumours in which the p53 pathway is partially abrogated through the inactivation of other signalling or effector components. The p53 pathway is therefore a prime target for new cancer drug(More)
We have carried out a cell-based screen aimed at discovering small molecules that activate p53 and have the potential to decrease tumor growth. Here, we describe one of our hit compounds, tenovin-1, along with a more water-soluble analog, tenovin-6. Via a yeast genetic screen, biochemical assays, and target validation studies in mammalian cells, we show(More)
In normal cells, p53 is maintained at a low level by ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, but after genotoxic insult this process is inhibited and p53 levels rise dramatically. Ubiquitination of p53 requires the ubiquitin-activating enzyme Ubc5 as a ubiquitin conjugation enzyme and Mdm2, which acts as a ubiquitin protein ligase. In addition to the N-terminal(More)