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The discovery of oxysterols as the endogenous liver X receptor (LXR) ligands and subsequent gene targeting studies in mice provided strong evidence that LXR plays a central role in cholesterol metabolism. The identification here of a synthetic, nonsteroidal LXR-selective agonist series represented by T0314407 and T0901317 revealed a novel physiological role(More)
Proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) generates amyloid beta (Abeta) peptide, which is thought to be causal for the pathology and subsequent cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease. Cleavage by beta-secretase at the amino terminus of the Abeta peptide sequence, between residues 671 and 672 of APP, leads to the generation and(More)
X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTX) is a form of hereditary neuropathy with demyelination. Recently, this disorder was mapped to chromosome Xq13.1. The gene for the gap junction protein connexin32 is located in the same chromosomal segment, which led to its consideration as a candidate gene for CMTX. With the use of Northern (RNA) blot and(More)
Postnatal neurogenesis contributes substantially to the neuronal population of the adult dentate gyrus. We report here that the neurons located in the deep aspects of the granule cell layer, near the proliferative zone, have different properties from those located in the superficial layers. The former group of neurons, tentatively designated as young, can(More)
During normal development of the vertebrate nervous system, large numbers of neurons in the central and peripheral nervous system undergo naturally occurring cell death. For example, about half of all spinal motor neurons die over a period of a few days in developing avian, rat and mouse embryos. Previous studies have shown that extracts from muscle and(More)
Efficacy of aligned poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) nano/micro fibrous scaffolds for neural tissue engineering is described and their performance with random PLLA scaffolds is compared as well in this study. Perfectly aligned PLLA fibrous scaffolds were fabricated by an electrospinning technique under optimum condition and the diameter of the electrospun fibers(More)
Parkinson's disease is treated pharmacologically with dopamine replacement medication and, more recently, by stimulating basal-ganglia nuclei such as the subthalamic nucleus (STN). Depth recordings after this procedure have revealed excessive activity at frequencies between 8 and 35 Hz (Brown et al., 2001; Kuhn et al., 2004; Priori et al., 2004) that are(More)
Quantal content of transmission was estimated for three synaptic systems (crayfish and Drosophila neuromuscular junctions, and rat dentate gyrus neurons) with three different methods of measurement: direct counts of released quanta, amplitude measurements of evoked and spontaneous events, and charge measurements of evoked and spontaneous events. At the(More)
1. The human ether à-go-go-related gene (HERG) encodes a K+ channel that is believed to be the basis of the delayed rectified current, IKr, in cardiac muscle. We studied HERG expressed in Xenopus oocytes using a two-electrode and cut-open oocyte clamp technique with [K+]0 of 2 and 98 mM. 2. The time course of activation of the channel was measured using an(More)
Recent studies have implicated a family of mammalian Toll-like receptors (TLR) in the activation of macrophages by Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial products. We have previously shown that different TLR proteins mediate cellular activation by the distinct CD14 ligands Gram-negative bacterial LPS and mycobacterial glycolipid lipoarabinomannan (LAM).(More)