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Pyramidal neurons in the deep layers of the cerebral cortex can be classified into two major classes: callosal projection neurons and long-range subcortical neurons. We and others have shown that a gene expressed specifically by subcortical projection neurons, Fezf2, is required for the formation of axonal projections to the spinal cord, tectum, and pons.(More)
This paper proposes a new cost function, cut ratio, for segmenting images using graph-based methods. The cut ratio is defined as the ratio of the corresponding sums of two different weights of edges along the cut boundary and models the mean affinity between the segments separated by the boundary per unit boundary length. This new cost function allows the(More)
We present ratio contour, a novel graph-based method for extracting salient closed boundaries from noisy images. This method operates on a set of boundary fragments that are produced by edge detection. Boundary extraction identifies a subset of these fragments and connects them sequentially to form a closed boundary with the largest saliency. We encode the(More)
In this paper, we propose two new, perceptually motivated strategies to better measure the similarity of 2D shape instances that are in the form of closed contours. The first strategy handles shapes that can be decomposed into a base structure and a set of inward or outward pointing “strand” structures, where a strand structure represents a(More)
This paper introduces a new edge-grouping method to detect perceptually salient structures in noisy images. Specifically, we define a new grouping cost function in a ratio form, where the numerator measures the boundary proximity of the resulting structure and the denominator measures the area of the resulting structure. This area term introduces a(More)
Recognizing human activities in partially observed videos is a challenging problem and has many practical applications. When the unobserved subsequence is at the end of the video, the problem is reduced to activity prediction from unfinished activity streaming, which has been studied by many researchers. However, in the general case, an unobserved(More)
We propose a new learning-based method for estimating 2D human pose from a single image, using Dual-Source Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (DS-CNN). Recently, many methods have been developed to estimate human pose by using pose priors that are estimated from physiologically inspired graphical models or learned from a holistic perspective. In this paper,(More)
bstract. Image segmentation and its performance evaluation are ery difficult but important problems in computer vision. A major hallenge in segmentation evaluation comes from the fundamental onflict between generality and objectivity: For general-purpose egmentation, the ground truth and segmentation accuracy may not e well defined, while embedding the(More)
We present a system that produces sentential descriptions of video: who did what to whom, and where and how they did it. Action class is rendered as a verb, participant objects as noun phrases, properties of those objects as adjectival modifiers in those noun phrases, spatial relations between those participants as prepositional phrases, and characteristics(More)
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor complex heterodimeric transcription factor, comprising the basic helix-loop-helix-Per-ARNT-Sim (bHLH-PAS) domain aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) proteins, mediates the toxic effects of TCDD (2,3,7,8 tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin). The molecular events underlying(More)