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Forest thinning is expected to affect tree water use and carbon assimilation, but the related influence from climate variability is little known. Recent forest thinning in the Wungong catchment coincided with a record dry year following the thinning, which provides a rare opportunity to understand the climate influence on the thinning effect. A field(More)
Our previous studies have shown that Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands, Poly I:C and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), are able to activate non-parenchymal liver cells and trigger the production of interferon (IFN) to inhibit hepatitis B virus replication in vivo and in vitro. However, little is known about TLR-mediated cellular responses in primary hepatocytes. By(More)
BACKGROUND Substitutions at amino acid residue 126 of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) occur frequently in hepatitis B virus (HBV) isolates from patients with chronic HBV infection. These substitutions occur naturally, but their significance for viral persistence is unclear and requires further investigation. METHODS We amplified coding regions of(More)
Small interfering RNA (siRNA) has been shown to be active to inhibit the hepatitis B virus gene expression and replication in transient and stable transfection systems. Here in primary hepatocytes prepared from naturally woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV)-infected woodchucks, four siRNAs targeting the WHV preS1, S, C, and X region led to a depletion of WHV(More)
—In this paper, we consider a molecular diffusion based communications link that conveys information on the macro-scale (several metres). The motivation is to apply molecular-based communications to challenging electromagnetic environments. We first derive a novel capture probability expression of a finite sized receiver. The paper then introduces the(More)
—In this paper, we consider a molecular diffusion based communications link that can reliably transport data over-the-air. We show that the system can also reliably transport data across confined structural environments, especially in cases where conventional electromagnetic (EM) wave based systems may fail. In particular, this paper compares the(More)
Molecular communications between mobile nano-robots will likely yield bit transposition errors. In such a scenario, it is important to design and test a new family of appropriate forward-error-correction codes. In this paper, we first construct a proof-of-concept robot to demonstrate how transposition errors arise. We then review state-of-the-art research(More)
A power control algorithm based on non-cooperative game for wireless sensor networks is presented to regulate the appropriate transmit power and satisfy the maximum requirement of network utility. In these networks, the appropriate transmission power is selected to improve the network topology, reduce the collisions, increase good put and confirm the(More)