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We present a draft sequence of the genome of Aedes aegypti, the primary vector for yellow fever and dengue fever, which at approximately 1376 million base pairs is about 5 times the size of the genome of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. Nearly 50% of the Ae. aegypti genome consists of transposable elements. These contribute to a factor of approximately(More)
Plants both lose water and take in carbon dioxide through microscopic stomatal pores, each of which is regulated by a surrounding pair of guard cells. During drought, the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) inhibits stomatal opening and promotes stomatal closure, thereby promoting water conservation. Dozens of cellular components have been identified to(More)
Modern life sciences research increasingly relies on computational solutions, from large scale data analyses to theoretical modeling. Within the theoretical models Boolean networks occupy an increasing role as they are eminently suited at mapping biological observations and hypotheses into a mathematical formalism. The conceptual underpinnings of Boolean(More)
We describe a Bayesian method based on Markov chain simulation to study the phylogenetic relationship in a group of DNA sequences. Under simple models of mutational events, our method produces a Markov chain whose stationary distribution is the conditional distribution of the phylogeny given the observed sequences. Our algorithm strikes a reasonable balance(More)
BACKGROUND BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in general populations and in various types of cancers have not been well characterized. We investigated the presence of these mutations in unselected patients with newly diagnosed incident ovarian cancer in Ontario, Canada, with respect to cancers reported among their relatives. METHODS A population series of 1171(More)
It is generally accepted that the de-differentiation of smooth muscle cells, from the contractile to the proliferative/synthetic phenotype, has an important role during vascular remodelling and diseases. Here we provide evidence that challenges this theory. We identify a new type of stem cell in the blood vessel wall, named multipotent vascular stem cells.(More)
Although Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are critical mediators of the immune response to pathogens, the influence of polymorphisms in this gene family on human susceptibility to infection is poorly understood. We demonstrated recently that TLR5 recognizes flagellin, a potent inflammatory stimulus present in the flagellar structure of many bacteria. Here, we(More)
BACKGROUND In the past, northern China's Shanxi Province has reported the highest incidence of neural tube defects (NTDs) in the world. However, little is known about the epidemiology of NTDs in this area in recent years. METHODS Data were collected from a population-based birth defects surveillance system in 4 counties that captures information on all(More)
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a potential source for the construction of tissue-engineered vascular grafts. However, how vascular mechanical forces regulate the genetic reprogramming in MSCs is not well understood. Mechanical strain in the vascular wall is anisotropic and mainly in the circumferential direction. We have shown that cyclic uniaxial strain(More)
UDP-Glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) are a superfamily of enzymes responsible for glucuronidation of xenobiotics and endobiotics. Genetic polymorphisms have been identified in the promoter and exonic regions of several UGT genes. The UGT1As on chromosome 2q37 have unique exons 1 but share the remainder of their coding sequence. We screened exon 1 of each of(More)