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Moving object detection is very important in intelligent surveillance. In this paper, an improved algorithm based on frame difference and edge detection is presented for moving object detection. First of all, it detects the edges of each two continuous frames by Canny detector and gets the difference between the two edge images. And then, it divides the(More)
TNF-alpha has both proinflammatory and immunoregulatory functions. Whereas a protective role for TNF administration in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-prone (New Zealand Black x New Zealand White)F(1) mice has been established, it remains uncertain whether this effect segregates at the individual TNFR. We generated SLE-prone New Zealand Mixed 2328 mice(More)
CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells play a pivotal role in the maintenance of immune homeostasis, where the X-linked master transcription factor forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) determines Treg cell development and function. Genetic deficiency of foxp3 induces dysfunction of Treg cells and immuno-dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, and X-linked(More)
BACKGROUND BAFF, in addition to promoting B cell survival and differentiation, may affect T cells. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of BAFF on Th17 cell generation and its ramifications for the Th17 cell-driven disease, EAE. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Th17 cells were increased in BAFF-Tg B6 (B6.BTg) mice and decreased in(More)
Recent studies have demonstrated that plasticity of naturally occurring CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (nTregs) may account for their inability to control chronic inflammation in established autoimmune diseases. All-trans retinoic acid (atRA), the active derivative of vitamin A, has been demonstrated to promote Foxp3(+) Treg differentiation and suppress(More)
Whereas TGF-beta is essential for the development of peripherally induced Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (iTreg cells) and Th17 cells, the intracellular signaling mechanism by which TGF-beta regulates development of both cell subsets is less understood. In this study, we report that neither Smad2 nor Smad3 gene deficiency abrogates TGF-beta-dependent iTreg(More)
BACKGROUND Protective CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells bearing the Forkhead Foxp3 transcription factor can now be divided into three subsets: Endogenous thymus-derived cells, those induced in the periphery, and another subset induced ex-vivo with pharmacological amounts of IL-2 and TGF-β. Unfortunately, endogenous CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells are unstable and(More)
Foxp3(+) T regulatory cells (Tregs) consisting of natural and induced Treg subsets play a crucial role in the maintenance of immune homeostasis against self-antigen. The actions designed to correct defects in numbers or functions of Tregs may be therapeutic in the treatment of autoimmune diseases. While recent studies demonstrated that natural Tregs are(More)
BACKGROUND It has been documented all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) promotes the development of TGF-β-induced CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (iTreg) that play a vital role in the prevention of autoimmune responses, however, molecular mechanisms involved remain elusive. Our objective, therefore, was to determine how atRA promotes the differentiation of(More)
Regulatory T cells prevent autoimmunity by suppressing the reactivity of potentially aggressive self-reactive T cells. Contact-dependent CD4+ CD25+ 'professional' suppressor cells and other cytokine-producing CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subsets mediate this protective function. Evidence will be reviewed that T cells primed with transforming growth factor(More)