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PURPOSE An open-label, phase II study to evaluate progression-free survival (PFS), overall best response, adverse events (AEs), and patient-reported outcomes with sorafenib versus interferon alfa-2a (IFN-alpha-2a) in patients with untreated, advanced renal cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS A total of 189 patients were randomly assigned to oral sorafenib 400 mg(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS Despite the rising prevalence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), data on its economic consequences are limited. This study was undertaken to estimate the aggregate annual financial burden associated with HCC in the United States, including healthcare costs and the value of lost productivity. METHODS Annual prevalence of HCC and incidence(More)
BACKGROUND The perception that older cancer patients may be at higher risk than younger patients of toxic effects from cancer therapy but may obtain less clinical benefit from it may be based on the underrepresentation of older patients in clinical trials and the known toxic effects of cytotoxic chemotherapy. It is not known how older patients respond to(More)
Two nuclear receptors, dosage-sensitive sex reversal adrenal hypoplasia congenita, critical region on the X chromosome gene-1 (Dax-1) and steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1), are required for adrenal development and function. In vitro assays suggest that Dax-1 represses SF-1 mediated transcription. In this study, we generated SF-1(+/-): Dax-1(-/Y) mice to examine(More)
Adrenocortical dysplasia (acd) is a spontaneous autosomal recessive mouse mutant with developmental defects in organs derived from the urogenital ridge. In surviving adult mutants, adrenocortical dysplasia and hypofunction are predominant features. Adults are infertile due to lack of mature germ cells, and 50% develop hydronephrosis due to ureteral(More)
The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare three competing models of the underlying factor structure of metabolic syndrome using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Data from the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS) was used, which has previously been evaluated using principal components analysis (PCA). The three models that were evaluated(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess actions of community pharmacists in response to their patients' concurrent use of prescription medications and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). DESIGN Nonexperimental, cross-sectional mail survey. SETTING Texas. PARTICIPANTS 107 community pharmacists. INTERVENTIONS Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Pharmacists'(More)
The formation of the adrenal cortex in humans is notable for the presence of two discrete zones, the fetal zone (FZ) which regresses soon after birth and the definitive zone (DZ) which gives rise to the classic steroidogenic zones of the adult cortex. Mice possess an analogous structure to the FZ referred to as the X-zone (XZ) which regresses at puberty in(More)
BACKGROUND A randomized phase III trial of sorafenib vs. placebo in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) demonstrated that sorafenib significantly prolonged overall survival (OS) compared to placebo. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A Markov model was developed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of sorafenib vs. best supportive care (BSC) in HCC from the perspective(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine learning-style scores of second-year pharmacy students before and after a problem-based learning (PBL) teaching experience and to evaluate the relationships between scores and demographic variables. METHODS The Grasha-Reichmann Student Learning Style Scale (GRSLSS) was given to pharmacotherapy laboratory students before and after a(More)