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CONTEXT Adherence to antiretroviral therapy is a powerful predictor of survival for individuals living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and AIDS. Concerns about incomplete adherence among patients living in poverty have been an important consideration in expanding the access to antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa. OBJECTIVE To evaluate(More)
BACKGROUND Adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) medication is the greatest patient-enabled predictor of treatment success and mortality for those who have access to drugs. We systematically reviewed the literature to determine patient-reported barriers and facilitators to adhering to antiretroviral therapy. METHODS AND FINDINGS We(More)
IMPORTANCE Many people meditate to reduce psychological stress and stress-related health problems. To counsel people appropriately, clinicians need to know what the evidence says about the health benefits of meditation. OBJECTIVE To determine the efficacy of meditation programs in improving stress-related outcomes (anxiety, depression, stress/distress,(More)
BACKGROUND Rosiglitazone and pioglitazone may increase the incidence of fractures. We aimed to determine systematically the risk of fractures associated with thiazolidinedione therapy and to evaluate the effect of the therapy on bone density. METHODS We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), other trial(More)
BACKGROUND Given the increase in medications for type 2 diabetes mellitus, clinicians and patients need information about their effectiveness and safety to make informed choices. PURPOSE To summarize the benefits and harms of metformin, second-generation sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones, meglitinides, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, and(More)
CONTEXT Recent reports of serious adverse events with rosiglitazone use have raised questions about whether the evidence of harm justifies its use for treatment of type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVE To systematically review the long-term cardiovascular risks of rosiglitazone, including myocardial infarction, heart failure, and cardiovascular mortality. DATA(More)
CONTEXT Inhaled anticholinergics (ipratropium bromide or tiotropium bromide) are widely used in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but their effect on the risk of cardiovascular outcomes is unknown. OBJECTIVE To ascertain the cardiovascular risks of inhaled anticholinergics, including cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction(More)
IMPORTANCE Acute pancreatitis has significant morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have raised the possibility that glucagonlike peptide 1 (GLP-1)-based therapies, including a GLP-1 mimetic (exenatide) and a dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor (sitagliptin phosphate), may increase the risk of acute pancreatitis. OBJECTIVE To test whether GLP-1-based(More)
August 2005 | Volume 2 | Issue 8 | e216 HIV/AIDS has reached alarming proportions in Southeast Asia [1]. The magnitude of the epidemic is projected to exceed that of subSaharan Africa in the 21st century [2]. More than 7 million South Asians are currently infected with HIV [3], nearly 5 million of whom are in India [3]. Nepal has had a comparatively lower(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the comparative effects of the thiazolidinediones (rosiglitazone and pioglitazone) on myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. DESIGN Systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. DATA SOURCES Searches of Medline and Embase in September 2010. STUDY SELECTION(More)