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The optimal duration of tuberculosis treatment for persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been debated. A cohort of 4571 culture-positive drug-susceptible patients who received > or =24 weeks of standard 4-drug tuberculosis treatment were assessed to determine the incidence of tuberculosis relapse. Tuberculosis "recurrence" was defined(More)
The prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) has increased worldwide, in part due to the HIV epidemic. Epidemiology data have demonstrated that HIV-infected individuals are more susceptible to MTB disease, which may lead to an acceleration in the progression of HIV disease. The purpose of this study was to determine whether MTB modulates HIV infection(More)
RATIONALE Moxifloxacin has promising preclinical activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but has not been evaluated in multidrug treatment of tuberculosis in humans. OBJECTIVE To compare the impact of moxifloxacin versus ethambutol, both in combination with isoniazid, rifampin, and pyrazinamide, on sputum culture conversion at 2 mo as a measure of(More)
Enterococci, a common cause of nosocomial infection, are intrinsically resistant to most antimicrobials and readily acquire additional resistance. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) have caused clusters of nosocomial infections since 1988. In April, 1991, the New York City Department of Health asked all city laboratories to submit suspected VRE isolates(More)
BACKGROUND Low adherence to treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (TLTBI) diminishes TB prevention efforts. This study examined the treatment completion rate among those who started TLTBI and factors associated with adherence to TLTBI. METHODS Patients who started TLTBI in New York City (NYC) Health Department chest clinics during January 2002-August(More)
BACKGROUND The relationship between rifamycin use and either relapse or treatment failure with acquired rifampin resistance (ARR) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with tuberculosis (TB) is not well understood. METHODS We conducted a retrospective cohort study of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected persons with rifampin-susceptible(More)
Spoligotype analysis identified false-positive isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis caused by laboratory cross-contamination. Spoligotyping is faster, is less expensive than DNA fingerprinting, and can be used with a variety of media. Patients were reevaluated and had medications discontinued as a result of this investigation. Months of unnecessary(More)
The prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in the various populations of New York City (NYC), a city with a high density of non-US-born persons, is unknown. We examined the prevalence of TST positivity in patients who received a tuberculin skin test (TST) between 1/2002 and 8/2004 at any of 10 NYC health department chest centers. A positive TST(More)
BACKGROUND A diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) relies on acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear and culture results. Two rapid tests that use nucleic acid amplification (NAA) have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the diagnosis of TB based on detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from specimens obtained from the respiratory tract. We evaluated(More)