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Blastomyces adhesin-1 (BAD-1) is a 120-kD surface protein on B. dermatitidis yeast. We show here that BAD-1 contains 41 tandem repeats and that deleting even half of them impairs fungal pathogenicity. According to NMR, the repeats form tightly folded 17-amino acid loops constrained by a disulfide bond linking conserved cysteines. Each loop contains a highly(More)
IL-7 is integral to the generation and maintenance of CD8(+) T cell memory, and insufficient IL-7 is believed to limit survival and the persistence of memory CD8(+) T cells. Here, we show that during the mouse T cell response to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, IL-7 enhanced the number of memory CD8(+) T cells when its administration was restricted to(More)
Vaccines may help reduce the growing incidence of fungal infections in immune-suppressed patients. We have found that, even in the absence of CD4(+) T-cell help, vaccine-induced CD8(+) T cells persist and confer resistance against Blastomyces dermatitidis and Histoplasma capsulatum. Type 1 cytokines contribute to that resistance, but they also are(More)
Individuals who are immunocompromised, including AIDS patients with few CD4(+) T cells, are at increased risk for opportunistic fungal infections. The incidence of such infections is increasing worldwide, meaning that the need for antifungal vaccines is increasing. Although CD4(+) T cells play a dominant role in resistance to many pathogenic fungal(More)
The E3 ubiquitin ligase Cbl-b is a negative regulator of TCR signaling that: 1) sets the activation threshold for T cells; 2) is induced in anergic T cells; and 3) protects against autoimmunity. However, the role of Cbl-b in regulating CD8 T cell activation and functions during physiological T cell responses has not been systematically examined. Using the(More)
Viral persistence during chronic viral infections is associated with a progressive loss of T-cell effector function called functional exhaustion. There is therefore a need to develop immunotherapies to remediate the functional deficits of T cells during these infections. We investigated the immunotherapeutic effects of IL-7 during chronic lymphocytic(More)
Fungal infections have skyrocketed in immune-compromised patients lacking CD4+ T cells, underscoring the need for vaccine prevention. An understanding of the elements that promote vaccine immunity in this setting is essential. We previously demonstrated that vaccine-induced IL-17A+ CD8+ T cells (Tc17) are required for resistance against lethal fungal(More)
Levels of the anaphylatoxin C3a are increased in patients with asthma compared with those in nonasthmatics and increase further still during asthma exacerbations. However, the role of C3a during sensitization to allergen is poorly understood. Sensitization to fungal allergens, such as Aspergillus fumigatus, is a strong risk factor for the development of(More)
Our understanding of persistence and plasticity of IL-17A+ memory T cells is clouded by conflicting results in models analyzing T helper 17 cells. We studied memory IL-17A+ CD8+ T-cell (Tc17) homeostasis, persistence and plasticity during fungal vaccine immunity. We report that vaccine-induced memory Tc17 cells persist with high fidelity to the type 17(More)
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