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U-report is an open-source SMS platform operated by UNICEF Uganda, designed to give community members a voice on issues that impact them. Data received by the system are either SMS responses to a poll conducted by UNICEF, or unsolicited reports of a problem occurring within the community. There are currently 200,000 U-report participants, and they send up(More)
Integration of optical communication circuits directly into high-performance microprocessor chips can enable extremely powerful computer systems. A germanium photodetector that can be monolithically integrated with silicon transistor technology is viewed as a key element in connecting chip components with infrared optical signals. Such a device should have(More)
The spectral dependence of the bending loss of cascaded 60 degrees bends in photonic crystal (PhC) waveguides is explored in a slab-type silicon-on-insulator system. An ultralow bending loss of (0.05 +/- 0.03) dB/bend is measured at wavelengths corresponding to the nearly dispersionless transmission regime. In contrast, the PhC bend is found to become(More)
We demonstrate optical modulation rates exceeding the conventional cavity linewidth limit using a silicon coupling modulated microring. Small-signal measurements show coupling modulation was free of the parasitic cavity linewidth limitations at rates at least 6× the cavity linewidth. Eye diagram measurements show coupling modulation achieved data rates > 2×(More)
BACKGROUND The issue of resistance in malarial infection makes development of novel drugs a necessity. An alternative source for discovering such drugs is natural products. Croton macrostachyus H. (Euphorbiaceae) is used in Ethiopian folklore medicine for the treatment of malaria and found to possess antimalarial activity in vitro. However, no further(More)
We present an ultra-broadband Mach-Zehnder based optical switch in silicon, electrically driven through carrier injection. Crosstalk levels lower than -17 dB are obtained for both the 'on' and 'off' switching states over an optical bandwidth of 110 nm, owing to the implementation of broadband 50% couplers. Full 2 x 2 switching functionality is demonstrated,(More)
We present an adiabatic taper design in three dimensions for coupling light into photonic crystal defect waveguides in a square lattice of circular dielectric rods. The taper is a two-stage structure in which the first stage makes the transition from a dielectric waveguide to a coupled-cavity waveguide. The second stage subsequently transforms the waveguide(More)
We present a 4x4 spatially non-blocking Mach-Zehnder based silicon optical switch fabricated using processes fully compatible with standard CMOS. We successfully demonstrate operation in all 9 unique switch states and 12 possible I/O routing configurations, with worst-case cross-talk levels lower than -9 dB, and common spectral bandwidth of 7 nm. High-speed(More)