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BACKGROUND AND AIMS Our aims were to identify and characterize the glottal response to esophageal mechanostimulation in human infants. We tested the hypotheses that glottal response is related to the type of esophageal peristaltic response, stimulus volume, and respiratory phase. METHODS Ten infants (2.8 kg, SD 0.5) were studied at 39.2 wk (SD 2.4).(More)
The tumour stroma is believed to contribute to some of the most malignant characteristics of epithelial tumours. However, signalling between stromal and tumour cells is complex and remains poorly understood. Here we show that the genetic inactivation of Pten in stromal fibroblasts of mouse mammary glands accelerated the initiation, progression and malignant(More)
OBJECTIVES The changes in esophageal propulsive characteristics during maturation are not known. Our aim was to define the effects of postnatal maturation on esophageal peristaltic characteristics in preterm human neonates. We tested the hypotheses that: (i) maturation modifies esophageal bolus propulsion characteristics, and (ii) the mechanistic(More)
Our understanding of the impact that fibroblasts have on cancer cell behavior in vivo has been limited by the complexities of in vivo tumor microenvironments, which contain many distinct cell populations that influence tumor growth and survival. Herein, we describe a novel, three-dimensional (3D), in vitro, fluorometric, Tumor Growth Assay (TGA) that allows(More)
PURPOSE Previous studies have highlighted the importance of an appropriate human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) evaluation for the proper identification of patients eligible for treatment with anti-HER2 targeted therapies. Today, the relationship remains unclear between the level of HER2 amplification and the outcome of HER2-positive gastric(More)
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) are implicated in breast cancer metastasis, but relatively little is known about the underlying genes and pathways that are involved. The transcription factor Ets2 is a direct target of signaling pathways involved in regulating macrophage functions during inflammation. We conditionally deleted Ets in TAMs to determine its(More)
The E2f3 locus encodes two Rb-binding gene products, E2F3a and E2F3b, which are differentially regulated during the cell cycle and are thought to be critical for cell cycle progression. We targeted the individual inactivation of E2f3a or E2f3b in mice and examined their contributions to cell proliferation and development. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and(More)
OBJECTIVES In neonatal intensive care unit infants referred for home-tube feeding methods, we evaluated the effect of an innovative diagnostic and management approach on feeding outcomes at discharge and 1 year, by comparing data from historical controls; we hypothesized that clinical and aerodigestive motility characteristics at evaluation were predictive(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is high among infants with chronic lung disease (CLD), and the associated pathogenic mechanisms are not clear. The relationship of symptoms to the extent or duration of acid reflux events (AREs) is not well known in preterm or term infants. Our aim was to evaluate the relationship(More)
Invasion and proliferation in neoplasia require the cooperation of tumor cell and endothelial compartments. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is increasingly recognized as a major contributor to signaling pathways that modulate invasion and proliferation. Here we show that GSK-3 inhibitors of the indirubin family reduce invasion of glioma cells and(More)