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The tumour stroma is believed to contribute to some of the most malignant characteristics of epithelial tumours. However, signalling between stromal and tumour cells is complex and remains poorly understood. Here we show that the genetic inactivation of Pten in stromal fibroblasts of mouse mammary glands accelerated the initiation, progression and malignant(More)
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) are implicated in breast cancer metastasis, but relatively little is known about the underlying genes and pathways that are involved. The transcription factor Ets2 is a direct target of signaling pathways involved in regulating macrophage functions during inflammation. We conditionally deleted Ets in TAMs to determine its(More)
Invasion and proliferation in neoplasia require the cooperation of tumor cell and endothelial compartments. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is increasingly recognized as a major contributor to signaling pathways that modulate invasion and proliferation. Here we show that GSK-3 inhibitors of the indirubin family reduce invasion of glioma cells and(More)
PURPOSE Oncolytic viruses (OV) based on herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) are being used in clinical trials for a variety of cancers. The OV, rQNestin34.5, uses a nestin promoter/enhancer to selectively drive robust viral replication in malignant glioma cells. We have discovered that this promoter becomes extensively methylated in infected glioma cells,(More)
OBJECTIVE To explore effects of zinc supplementation in American children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Mideastern trials reported significant benefit from 13-40 mg elemental zinc as the sulfate. METHOD We randomly assigned 52 children aged 6-14 with DSM-IV ADHD to zinc supplementation (15 mg every morning [qAM] or two times per(More)
The E2F family is conserved from Caenorhabditis elegans to mammals, with some family members having transcription activation functions and others having repressor functions. Whereas C. elegans and Drosophila melanogaster have a single E2F activator protein and repressor protein, mammals have at least three activator and five repressor proteins. Why such(More)
Identification of stem cell-like brain tumor cells (brain tumor stem-like cells; BTSC) has gained substantial attention by scientists and physicians. However, the mechanism of tumor initiation and proliferation is still poorly understood. CD44 is a cell surface protein linked to tumorigenesis in various cancers. In particular, one of its variant isoforms,(More)
Angiogenesis is a complex process orchestrated by both growth factors and cell adhesion and is initiated by focal degradation of the vascular basement membrane with subsequent migration and proliferation of endothelial cells. The Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK pathway is required for EC function during angiogenesis. Although in vitro studies implicate ERK1 and ERK2 in(More)
One approach to studying pediatric stroke is to analyze a national database that contains data on a significant number of children. We examined an administrative dataset of hospital discharges from the United States, Kids' Inpatient Database 2003 (KID2003), for ICD-9 codes associated with hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke in children aged >30 days to 20 years.(More)
BACKGROUND The conventional method for assessing the prevalence of Global Acute Malnutrition (GAM) in emergency settings is the 30 x 30 cluster-survey. This study describes alternative approaches: three Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) designs to assess GAM. The LQAS designs were field-tested and their results compared with those from a 30 x 30(More)