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The IP Multimedia Core Network Subsystem (IMS) provides real-time multimedia services for Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS). Through Recharge Threshold-based Credit Reservation (RTCR) mechanism, prepaid IMS services can be supported by the Online Charging System (OCS) in UMTS. In RTCR, when the remaining amount of prepaid credit is below a(More)
During an online charging General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) session, a number of mid-session events, such as changes of Quality of Service (QoS), could dynamically affect the rating of the in-progress service. When such events occur, the GPRS support node needs to re-authorize the granted credit units with the Online Charging System (OCS). This paper(More)
In Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS), the extension of GPRS tunneling protocol called GTP' is utilized to transfer the Charging Data Records (CDRs) from GPRS Support Nodes (GSNs) to Charging Gateways (CGs). To ensure that the mobile operator receives the charging information, availability for the GTP' transmission is essential. One of the(More)
The Third-Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) has recently standardized the policy and charging control (PCC) system to provide dynamic policy enforcement for network resource allocation combined with real-time charging. The upward trend in smartphone use and the subsequent explosion of data traffic on third-generation (3G) networks have pressed carriers(More)