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— The IP Multimedia Core Network Subsystem (IMS) provides real-time multimedia services for Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS). Through Recharge Threshold-based Credit Reservation (RTCR) mechanism, prepaid IMS services can be supported by the Online Charging System (OCS) in UMTS. In RTCR, when the remaining amount of prepaid credit is below a(More)
—During an online charging General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) session, a number of mid-session events, such as changes of Quality of Service (QoS), could dynamically affect the rating of the in-progress service. When such events occur, the GPRS support node needs to re-authorize the granted credit units with the Online Charging System (OCS). This paper(More)
—Universal mobile-telecommunication system supports IP multimedia services through the IP multimedia core-network subsystem (IMS). This paper proposes a prepaid application server (PAS) to handle both the prepaid calls and messaging services in the IMS. When both voice and messaging are simultaneously offered, a potential problem is that the delivery of a(More)
In Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS), the extension of GPRS tunneling protocol called GTP' is utilized to transfer the Charging Data Records (CDRs) from GPRS Support Nodes (GSNs) to Charging Gateways (CGs). To ensure that the mobile operator receives the charging information, availability for the GTP' transmission is essential. One of the(More)