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During the process of autophagy, cytoplasmic materials are sequestered by double-membrane structures, the autophagosomes, and then transported to a lytic compartment to be degraded. One of the most fundamental questions about autophagy involves the origin of the autophagosomal membranes. In this study, we focus on the intracellular dynamics of Atg9, a(More)
Podocytes present a unique 3D architecture specialized for glomerular filtration. However, several 3D morphological aspects on podocyte development remain partially understood because they are difficult to reveal using conventional scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Here, we adopted serial block-face SEM imaging, a powerful tool for analyzing the 3D(More)
Retromer is a complex of proteins that functions in the endosome-to-Golgi retrieval cargo transport pathway. VPS35 works as the central subunit of retromer to recognize the cargos and binds with VPS29 and VPS26 via distinct domains. We show that deficiency of VPS35 or VPS29 accompanies degradation of other subunits, whereas VPS26 deficiency had no effect on(More)
Exocytosis of extrusomes, secretory granules found in protozoa, is involved in prey capture by the heliozoon Actinophrys sol. Here, we show that extracellular Ca(2+) is necessary for exocytosis and prey capture in A. sol. We found that A. sol could not capture prey cells in a Ca(2+)-free solution. L-type Ca(2+) channel blockers and a calmodulin antagonist(More)
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