Soichi Wakatsuki

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Activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), a key mediator of inducible transcription in immunity, requires binding of NF-kappaB essential modulator (NEMO) to ubiquitinated substrates. Here, we report that the UBAN (ubiquitin binding in ABIN and NEMO) motif of NEMO selectively binds linear (head-to-tail) ubiquitin chains. Crystal structures of the UBAN(More)
Ubiquitin-binding domains (UBDs) are modular elements that bind non-covalently to the protein modifier ubiquitin. Recent atomic-level resolution structures of ubiquitin–UBD complexes have revealed some of the mechanisms that underlie the versatile functions of ubiquitin in vivo. The preferences of UBDs for ubiquitin chains of specific length and linkage are(More)
Gangliosides play key roles in cell differentiation, cell-cell interactions, and transmembrane signaling. Sialidases hydrolyze sialic acids to produce asialo compounds, which is the first step of degradation processes of glycoproteins and gangliosides. Sialidase involvement has been implicated in some lysosomal storage disorders such as sialidosis and(More)
Rifamycins, the clinically important antibiotics, target bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP). A proposed mechanism in which rifamycins sterically block the extension of nascent RNA beyond three nucleotides does not alone explain why certain RNAP mutations confer resistance to some but not other rifamycins. Here we show that unlike rifampicin and rifapentin, and(More)
Hrs has an essential role in sorting of monoubiquitinated receptors to multivesicular bodies for lysosomal degradation, through recognition of ubiquitinated receptors by its ubiquitin-interacting motif (UIM). Here, we present the structure of a complex of Hrs-UIM and ubiquitin at 1.7-Å resolution. Hrs-UIM forms a single α-helix, which binds two ubiquitin(More)
GGAs are critical for trafficking soluble proteins from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to endosomes/lysosomes through interactions with TGN-sorting receptors, ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) and clathrin. ARF–GTP bound to TGN membranes recruits its effector GGA by binding to the GAT domain, thus facilitating recognition of GGA for cargo-loaded receptors. Here(More)
Ubiquitination serves as a key sorting signal in the lysosomal degradation of endocytosed receptors through the ability of ubiquitinated membrane proteins to be recognized and sorted by ubiquitin-binding proteins along the endocytic route. The ESCRT-II complex in yeast contains one such protein, Vps36, which harbors a ubiquitin-binding NZF domain and is(More)
Streptolydigin (Stl) is a potent inhibitor of bacterial RNA polymerases (RNAPs). The 2.4 A resolution structure of the Thermus thermophilus RNAP-Stl complex showed that, in full agreement with the available genetic data, the inhibitor binding site is located 20 A away from the RNAP active site and encompasses the bridge helix and the trigger loop, two(More)
GGAs (Golgi-localizing, gamma-adaptin ear domain homology, ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF)-binding proteins) are a family of monomeric adaptor proteins involved in membrane trafficking from the trans-Golgi network to endosomes. The GAT (GGA and Tom1) domains of GGAs have previously been shown to interact with GTP-bound ARF and to be crucial for membrane(More)
INTRODUCTION The complex iron-sulfur flavoprotein glutamate synthase catalyses the reductive synthesis of L-glutamate from 2-oxoglutarate and L-glutamine, a reaction in the plant and bacterial pathway for ammonia assimilation. The enzyme functions through three distinct active centers carrying out L-glutamine hydrolysis, conversion of 2-oxoglutarate into(More)