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The power conversion efficiency of small-molecular-weight and polymer organic photovoltaic cells has increased steadily over the past decade. This progress is chiefly attributable to the introduction of the donor-acceptor heterojunction that functions as a dissociation site for the strongly bound photogenerated excitons. Further progress was realized in(More)
Removing electrons from the CuO2 plane of cuprates alters the electronic correlations sufficiently to produce high-temperature superconductivity. Associated with these changes are spectral-weight transfers from the high-energy states of the insulator to low energies. In theory, these should be detectable as an imbalance between the tunneling rate for(More)
The effects of blockade of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR) in rat cerebral cortex on learning and memory were studied by the use of passive and active avoidance tests. Injection of propylbenzilylcholine mustard (PrBCM) into frontal, parietal and occipital cortex decreased mAChR dose dependently, as assessed by 3H-quinuclidinylbenzilate binding(More)
Coupling between electrons and phonons (lattice vibrations) drives the formation of the electron pairs responsible for conventional superconductivity. The lack of direct evidence for electron-phonon coupling in the electron dynamics of the high-transition-temperature superconductors has driven an intensive search for an alternative mechanism. A coupling of(More)
Scanning tunneling microscopy is used to image the additional quasi-particle states generated by quantized vortices in the high critical temperature superconductor Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+delta. They exhibit a copper-oxygen bond-oriented "checkerboard" pattern, with four unit cell (4a0) periodicity and a approximately 30 angstrom decay length. These electronic(More)
In the high-transition-temperature (high-T(c)) superconductors the pseudogap phase becomes predominant when the density of doped holes is reduced. Within this phase it has been unclear which electronic symmetries (if any) are broken, what the identity of any associated order parameter might be, and which microscopic electronic degrees of freedom are active.(More)
The electronic structure of simple crystalline solids can be completely described in terms either of local quantum states in real space (r-space), or of wave-like states defined in momentum-space (k-space). However, in the copper oxide superconductors, neither of these descriptions alone may be sufficient. Indeed, comparisons between r-space and k-space(More)
In a rat phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparation, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) increased the twitch contraction induced by nerve or transmural stimulation dose dependently. Either electrical or high K+ stimulation of the phrenic nerve caused release of a CGRP-like immunoreactive substance (CGRP-LIS) in a Ca2(+)-dependent manner. Electrical(More)
The effect of bradykinin on the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in NG108-15 cells was studied using a Ca2+ indicator quin 2. Bradykinin induced two phases of change in [Ca2+]i. Bradykinin induced a spike phase of [Ca2+]i increase which was detectable within 15 s and decayed to near-basal concentration in 3 min and then a prolonged plateau phase(More)