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The clinical side effects associated with the inhibition of cyclooxygenase enzymes under pathologic conditions have recently raised concerns. A better understanding of neuroinflammatory mechanisms and neuronal survival requires knowledge of cyclooxygenase downstream pathways, especially PGE2 and its G-protein-coupled receptors. In this study, we postulate(More)
Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb), a potent antioxidant and monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) inhibitor, was evaluated for its anti-parkinsonian effects in a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rat model of the disease. Rats were treated with 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg EGb for 3 weeks. On day 21, 2 microL 6-OHDA (10 microg in 0.1% ascorbic acid saline) was injected into the right(More)
Prostaglandin D(2) (PGD(2)) is the most abundant prostaglandin produced in the brain. It is a metabolite of arachidonic acid and synthesized by prostaglandin D(2) synthases (PGDS) via the cyclooxygenase pathway. Two distinct types of PGDS have been identified: hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase (H-PGDS) and lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Ginkgo biloba extracts are now prescribed in several countries for their reported health benefits, particularly for medicinal properties in the brain. The standardized Ginkgo extract, EGb761, has been reported to protect neurons against oxidative stress, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. METHODS To characterize(More)
Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the progression of cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Considerable attention has been focused on increasing the internal antioxidant defenses in response to AD. This study was designed to examine and compare the pretreatment effects of Pycnogenol (PYC) and vitamin E (Vit E) on cognitive deficits and(More)
Although some of the COX-2 metabolites and prostaglandins have been implicated in stroke and excitotoxicity, the role of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) and its FP receptor have not been elucidated in the pathogenesis of ischemic-reperfusion (I/R) brain injury. Here we investigated the FP receptor’s contribution in a unilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA)(More)
Atheroembolic renal disease is an important and often underdiagnosed cause of renal insufficiency in the elderly. Renal damage results from embolization of cholesterol crystals from atherosclerotic plaques in large vessels such as the abdominal aorta to small arteries of the kidney. The typical patient is a white man older than 60 years who has an insidious(More)
The modifying effects of Crocus sativus (CS) stigma extract on neurobehavioral activities, malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activities, and glutamate (Glu) and aspartate (Asp) content were examined in(More)
6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) is one of the most widely used rat models for Parkinson's disease. There is ample evidence in the literature that 6-OHDA elicits its toxic manifestations through oxidant stress. In the present study, we evaluated the anti-parkinsonian effects of Withania somnifera extract, which has been reported to have potent anti-oxidant,(More)