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Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the progression of cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Considerable attention has been focused on increasing the internal antioxidant defenses in response to AD. This study was designed to examine and compare the pretreatment effects of Pycnogenol (PYC) and vitamin E (Vit E) on cognitive deficits and(More)
Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb), a potent antioxidant and monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) inhibitor, was evaluated for its anti-parkinsonian effects in a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rat model of the disease. Rats were treated with 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg EGb for 3 weeks. On day 21, 2 microL 6-OHDA (10 microg in 0.1% ascorbic acid saline) was injected into the right(More)
Prostaglandin D(2) (PGD(2)) is the most abundant prostaglandin produced in the brain. It is a metabolite of arachidonic acid and synthesized by prostaglandin D(2) synthases (PGDS) via the cyclooxygenase pathway. Two distinct types of PGDS have been identified: hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase (H-PGDS) and lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase(More)
The clinical side effects associated with the inhibition of cyclooxygenase enzymes under pathologic conditions have recently raised concerns. A better understanding of neuroinflammatory mechanisms and neuronal survival requires knowledge of cyclooxygenase downstream pathways, especially PGE2 and its G-protein-coupled receptors. In this study, we postulate(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Ginkgo biloba extracts are now prescribed in several countries for their reported health benefits, particularly for medicinal properties in the brain. The standardized Ginkgo extract, EGb761, has been reported to protect neurons against oxidative stress, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. METHODS To characterize(More)
Transient global cerebral ischemia causes delayed neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 region. It also induces an up regulation of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), which generates several metabolites of arachidonic acid, known as prostanoids, including Prostaglandin I2 (PGI2). The present study investigated whether the PGI2 IP receptor plays an important role in(More)
The lipid mediator prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) exhibits diverse biologic activity in a variety of tissues. Four PGE2 receptor subtypes (EP1-4) are involved in various physiologic and pathophysiologic conditions, but differ in tissue distribution, ligand-binding affinity, and coupling to intracellular signaling pathways. To characterize the role of the EP1(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the major neurodegenerative disorders, and oxidative stress has been implicated in playing an important role in the pathogenesis of the disease. In the present study, we investigated if Delphinium denudatum extract can slow down the neuronal injury in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rat model of Parkinsonism. Rats were treated(More)
Normal cellular metabolism produces oxidants which are neutralized within the cell by antioxidant enzymes and other antioxidants. An imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant has been postulated to lead the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease. In this study, we examined whether adenosine, an antioxidant, can prevent or slowdown(More)
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are implicated as the leading biochemical cause of neuronal death in various neurologic disorders, including Parkinson's disease. In the present study, neuromodulatory effects of crocetin (active constituent of Crocus sativus) in a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) model of rat Parkinsonism were investigated. Male Wistar rats were(More)